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司马

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司马,指中国古代的一个官职名称,在不同的朝代有不同的职权。

中央官名

西周始置,位次三公,与六卿相当,与司徒司空司士司寇并称五官,掌军政和军赋,春秋战国沿置。楚国设置“令尹”与“大司马”二职,皆有权领兵,如《左传》:“司马将中军,令尹将左军,右尹子辛将右军。”等。究竟由什么职务统军,端看实际需要而定,并不是很严格的规范。汉武帝时置大司马,作为大将军的加号,后亦加于骠骑将军东汉单独设置,皆开府以后为兵部尚书的别称。[1]

军官名

东周战国时期,各军之下亦设有司马,地位不如各军主帅与军佐,领的是大夫衔,《尉缭子》:“令百人一卒,千人一司马,万人一将,以少诛众,以弱诛强。”可见司马之职位在将军之下。汉武帝定制,司马,主武也,掌管军事之职。大将军所属军队分为五部,各置司马一人领之。魏晋南北朝,诸将军开府,府置司马一人,地位仅次于将军,掌本府军事,相当于后世的参谋长。[2]

司马昭即以山涛为行军司马,胡三省注称:“行军司马之号始此。”。[3]

宋制,司马铜印墨绶,绛朝服,武冠。至隋时废州府之任,不置司马,改置治中

地方官名

唐朝设司马,作为刺史的佐官,实际无职掌,多用于处置贬官;著名诗人白居易即曾因得罪权贵,被贬为江州(今江西省九江市)司马,并在元和十一年写下《琵琶行》这篇千古名作,其诗云:“同是天涯沦落人,相逢何必曾相识”、“坐中泣下谁最多?江州司马青衫湿”。士大夫雅称同知为司马。

相关

参考

  1. ^ 史记·楚世家》:“立子比为王,公子子皙为令尹,充疾为司马。”
  2. ^ 三国志·蜀志·姜维传》:“延熙元年,随大将军蒋琬汉中。琬既迁大司马,以维为司马,数率偏军西入。”
  3. ^ 资治通鉴·魏元帝咸熙元年》:“昭自将大军从帝幸长安,以诸王公皆在邺,乃以山涛为行军司马。”胡三省注:“行军司马之号始此。”
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司马
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