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土耳其人

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土耳其人
Türkler
皮瑞・雷斯英语Piri Reis
法佐・赛依英语Fazıl Say
总人口
大约7200–7700 万
分布地区

 土耳其 63,589,988–65,560,701
(2008 est. of 2015 pop.)[1]
 北塞浦路斯 315,000 d[›][2][3]

 德国 2,774,000 (包括土耳其库尔德人英语Kurds in Turkey)[4]
 法国 820,000 (2014 estimate)[5][5]
 英国 500,000a[›][6][7][8]
 荷兰 396,414e[›]–500,000c[›][9][10][11][12]
 奥地利 350,000–500,000[13][14]
 比利时 200,000[15][16][17]
 美国 196,222–500,000 b[›][18][19][20][21]
 瑞典 100,000–150,000[22][23]
 瑞士 70,440 e[›][24]
 澳大利亚 66,919–150,000 b[›][25][26][27][28]
 丹麦 28,892 f[›]b[›][29]
 加拿大 24,910 b[›][30]
 意大利 22,580 e[›][31]
 以色列 22,000[32]
 伊拉克 500,000–3,000,000[33][34][35]l[›]
 叙利亚 100,000[36]
 沙特阿拉伯 150,000–200,000 b[›][37][38]
 约旦 60,000[37]
 黎巴嫩 50,000–200,000[39][40][41][42]
 利比亚 50,000 b[›][37]
 保加利亚 588,318–800,000[43][44][45]
 北马其顿 77,959[46][47][48][49]
 希腊 49,000 (官方统计)–130,000 g[›][50][51][52][53]
 罗马尼亚 27,700[54][55][56]
 科索沃 18,738[57]
 俄罗斯 109,883–150,000[58][59]
 哈萨克斯坦 104,792–150,000 h[›][60][61]
 吉尔吉斯斯坦 40,953–50,000 h[›][62][61][63]
 阿塞拜疆 38,000–110,000 h[›][64][61][65][66]
语言
土耳其语
宗教信仰

主要为伊斯兰教[67][68][69][70]

逊尼派阿列维派拜克塔什教团十二伊玛目派
少数无宗教[67][71]基督宗教[72][73]犹太教[74]
注释
a. ^ The total figure is merely an estimation; sum of all the referenced populations.
身穿民族服饰的土耳其族的儿童
身穿民族服饰的土耳其族的儿童

土耳其人土耳其语:Türkler)是土耳其共和国的主体民族(占人口70-75%),绝大多数信奉伊斯兰教逊尼派,源自奥斯曼帝国时期。该民族主要分分布土耳其北马其顿科索沃波斯尼亚德国法国阿塞拜疆北塞浦路斯希腊俄罗斯保加利亚格鲁吉亚罗马尼亚奥地利英国荷兰比利时列支敦士登伊拉克黎巴嫩哈萨克斯坦乌兹别克斯坦澳大利亚北美地区等地。而土耳其人祖先最早可追溯至突厥人。他们使用的语言为土耳其语

词源和民族认同

土耳其人主要种族来源是安纳托利亚希腊人亚美尼亚人库尔德人阿拉伯人波斯人,以及古代的赫梯吕底亚人与后来的高加索地区和巴尔干半岛的居民混血而成,属于高加索人种中的巴尔干-高加索人种;但在文化心理认同上,土耳其人普遍接受自己是突厥人[75]

土耳其人最早是由拜占庭希腊人与阿拉伯人混合而成,1071年之后,乌古斯人开始在安纳托利亚建国,蒙古伊尔汗国时代大量乌古斯人因躲避蒙古人进入安纳托利亚,逐渐融入当地居民中,同时将伊斯兰教信仰带入土耳其。

文化

艺术与建筑

土耳其建筑在奥斯曼帝国时期发展达到巅峰;受塞尔柱拜占庭伊斯兰建筑影响的奥斯曼建筑开始发展自己的风格[76],奥斯曼建筑混合地中海和中东建筑的风格。随着土耳其从封建帝国转变成民主共和国,实行政教的分离政策,艺术表现方式的大量增加。土耳其政府投入大量资源进入艺术领域;如博物馆,剧院,歌剧院和建筑。[77]

传统的土耳其音乐包括源自奥斯曼王朝宫廷的土耳其民间音乐英语Turkish folk music(Halk Müziği),土耳其民间音乐英语Turkish folk musicFasıl英语Fasıl奥斯曼古典音乐英语Ottoman classical music[78]

现代土耳其音乐包含土耳其流行音乐英语Turkish pop music,摇滚和土耳其嘻哈音乐。[78]

语言

土耳其语,也称土耳其文,属于阿尔泰语系突厥语族乌古斯语支。在土耳其巴尔干半岛塞浦路斯梅斯赫季和以前奥斯曼帝国统治的区域。土耳其语是土耳其共和国的官方语言。在巴尔干半岛,土耳其裔仍然使用土耳其语,特别是在保加利亚希腊(主要是西色雷斯),科索沃马其顿共和国罗马尼亚(主要在多布罗加)和摩尔多瓦(主要在加告兹)。[79] 塞浦路斯的土耳其语于1571年被奥斯曼帝国征服时被引入,并成为很重要的语言。[80]

宗教

土耳其宗教(2012)[81]

  伊斯兰教 (96.5%)
  基督宗教 (0.3%)
  其他/无宗教 (3.2%)

根据中央情报局的统计资料,土耳其99.8%的人口是穆斯林,大多数是逊尼派哈乃斐派),其余的0.2%主要是基督徒和犹太人。[82]土耳其估计有1千万到1千5百万的阿列维派穆斯林。[83] 土耳其的基督徒族群包括叙利亚人[84] ,亚美尼亚人和希腊人[85] 。 土耳其犹太人主要是塞法迪犹太人[86]土耳其基督教新教英语Protestantism in Turkey信徒主要为穆斯林改宗者。[87][88][89][90]

根据KONDA研究,只有9.7%的人口称自己是“完全虔诚的信徒”,而52.8%的人表示自己有“宗教信仰”。[91] 69.4%的受访者表示他们或他们的太太会穿着伊斯兰盖头(其中1.3%是卡多尔英语chador),尽管这一比率在几个人口统计学中下降:18-28 岁时有53%,大学毕业有27.5%,硕士或更高学位有16.1% 。[67]自共和国时代以来,土耳其为一个世俗国家。[92]根据一项民意调查,90%的受访者表示,土耳其应被定义为世俗国家[93]

基因遗传来源

早期研究土耳其人基因,大都认为土耳其人基因为中亚突厥人的基因,2003年一项关于等位基因频率的研究表明,属于蒙古人种的突厥人与现代小亚细亚土耳其人之间缺乏遗传关系,尽管土耳其人使用的土耳其语属于突厥语系。[94]根据American Journal of Physical Anthropology(2008)研究,今天的土耳其人与巴尔干半岛的种族的关系比与中亚的种族更为接近[95],然而,最近的研究提到了混血基因。

土耳其人的人类Y染色体DNA单倍型类群分布

土耳其人基因中的人类Y染色体DNA单倍型类群分布[96]
土耳其人基因中的人类Y染色体DNA单倍型类群分布[96]
  • Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA)=24% – J2 (M172)[96] 典型的西地中海,高加索,西亚,中亚和南亚基因
  • Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA)=14.7%[96] 在欧亚大陆西部广泛分布,具有鲜明的“西亚”和“西欧”血统
  • Haplogroup G (Y-DNA)=10.9%[96] – 典型的高加索人和中东,中亚南部和欧洲的基因
  • Haplogroup E1b1b (Y-DNA)=10.7%[96] 北非、东非和西亚基因[97]
  • Haplogroup J1 (Y-DNA)=9%[96] – 典型的阿拉伯半岛和达吉斯坦人基因
  • Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA)=6.9%[96] – 分布在中亚、南亚、中欧、东欧和东南欧
  • Haplogroup I (Y-DNA)=5.3%[96] – 斯堪的纳维亚半岛、撒丁岛、库尔德人和东欧族群基因
  • Haplogroup K (Y-DNA)=4.5%[96] – 典型的亚洲族群和高加索人基因
  • Haplogroup L (Y-DNA)=4.2%[96] – 典型的印度次大陆和呼罗珊(现在西亚和中亚部分地区)基因,在高加索地区有零星分布
  • Haplogroup L (Y-DNA)=3.8%[96] – 典型乌拉尔西伯利亚基因
  • Haplogroup T (Y-DNA)=2.5%[96] – 典型的地中海、中东、东北非和南亚基因
  • Haplogroup Q (Y-DNA)=1.9%[96] – 典型的古西伯利亚基因
  • Haplogroup C (Y-DNA)=1.3%[96] – 典型的西伯利亚和蒙古基因
  • Haplogroup R2 (Y-DNA)=0.96%[96] 典型南亚基因

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土耳其人
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