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基数投票制

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在评分选票上,选民可以独立地对每位候选人评分。
在评分选票上,选民可以独立地对每位候选人评分。

基数投票制指任何允许选民分别评估每位候选人的选举制度,通常为分数或等级的评价。[1]这些选举制度也被称为“评分”(评分投票)、“评估”、“评级”或“绝对”投票制。[2][3]基于基数效用的基数制与基于序数效用英语Ordinal utility序数制,是除多数制外,现代投票制度的两大类别。[4][5][6]

变种

赞成投票没有排名,不具备排他性。
赞成投票没有排名,不具备排他性。
多数判断投票基于等级,就像学校中的成绩一样。
多数判断投票基于等级,就像学校中的成绩一样。

多种投票制度允许选民分别评估每位候选人,如:

  • 赞成投票(英语:approval rating,AV),最简单的制度,祇允许 2 个等级(0、1):“赞成”与“不赞成”。[7]
  • 评估投票(英语:evaluated rating,EV)或混合赞成投票英语combined approval voting(英语:combined approval rating,CAV),采用 3 个等级(−1、0、+1):“反对”、“弃权”与“支持”。[7][8][9]
  • 计分投票或范围投票,以数字评分,拥有最高的平均或总和[10][11]评分的候选人获胜。
  • 最高中位数规则英语Highest median voting rules,选举具有最高中位数评级的候选人。[16]不同的最高中位数规则,以不同的方法打破平局。多数判断英语majority judgment的等级以词语表述,如“优秀”至“差”。多数判断是最高中位数规则最常见的例子,因为它在此类规则中最早被研究,但此后也有其他规则被提出,如典型判断与常规判断英语Usual judgment[17]
  • STAR投票英语STAR voting,评分为 0–5。总分最高的两名候选人,在多数投票中评分更高的一位获胜。[18][19][20]
  • 多数赞成投票,巴克林投票计分的变体,通常使用字母等级,如“A”至“F”。[21]
  • 3-2-1 投票,投票者评价每位候选人为“好”、“尚可”或“坏”。投票结果以三个自动淘汰步骤计算:第一步选择“好”评分最多的三位候选人。第二步选择“坏”最少的两位。最后一步,大多数人喜欢的一位获胜。[22][23]

此外,数个基数制具有多胜者选举的变体,通常是为了达到比例代表,如:

参见

参考资料

  1. ^ Baujard, Antoinette; Gavrel, Frédéric; Igersheim, Herrade; Laslier, Jean-François; Lebon, Isabelle. How voters use grade scales in evaluative voting (PDF). European Journal of Political Economy. 2017-09, 55: 14–28. ISSN 0176-2680. doi:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2017.09.006 (英语). A key feature of evaluative voting is a form of independence: the voter can evaluate all the candidates in turn . . . another feature of evaluative voting . . . is that voters can express some degree of preference. 
  2. ^ Cardinal voting systems. Electowiki. [2017-01-31] (英语). 
  3. ^ Voting system. Electowiki. [2017-01-31] (英语). 
  4. ^ Riker, William Harrison. Liberalism against populism: A confrontation between the theory of democracy and the theory of social choice. Waveland Pr. 1982: 29–30. ISBN 0881333670. OCLC 316034736 (英语). Ordinal utility is a measure of preferences in terms of rank orders—that is, first, second, etc. . . . Cardinal utility is a measure of preferences on a scale of cardinal numbers, such as the scale from zero to one or the scale from one to ten. 
  5. ^ Ordinal versus cardinal voting rules: A mechanism design approach (英语). 
  6. ^ Vasiljev, Sergei. Cardinal voting: The way to escape the social choice impossibility. 2008-04. SSRN 1116545可免费查阅 (英语). 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 Hillinger, Claude. The case for utilitarian voting. Open Access LMU. 2005-05-01 [2018-05-15] (英语). Specific UV rules that have been proposed are approval voting, allowing the scores 0, 1; range voting, allowing all numbers in an interval as scores; evaluative voting, allowing the scores −1, 0, 1. 
  8. ^ Hillinger, Claude. On the possibility of democracy and rational collective choice. Rochester, NY. 2004-10-01. SSRN 608821可免费查阅 (英语). I favor 'evaluative voting' under which a voter can vote for or against any alternative, or abstain. 
  9. ^ Felsenthal, Dan S. On combining approval with disapproval voting. Behavioral Science. 1989-01, 34 (1): 53–60. ISSN 0005-7940. doi:10.1002/bs.3830340105 (英语). under CAV he has three options—cast one vote in favor, abstain, or cast one vote against. 
  10. ^ Range Voting. Social Choice and Beyond. [2016-12-10] (英语). with the winner being the one with the largest point total. Or, alternatively, the average may be computed and the one with the highest average wins 
  11. ^ Score Voting. The Center for Election Science. 2015-05-21 [2016-12-10] (英语). Simplified forms of score voting automatically give skipped candidates the lowest possible score for the ballot they were skipped. Other forms have those ballots not affect the candidate’s rating at all. Those forms not affecting the candidates rating frequently make use of quotas. Quotas demand a minimum proportion of voters rate that candidate in some way before that candidate is eligible to win. 
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Should you be using a more expressive voting system?. VoteUp. [2018-05-15] (英语). Score Voting—it's just like range voting except the scores are discrete instead of spanning a continuous range. 
  13. ^ Rating scale research. RangeVoting.org. [2018-05-15] (英语). The present page seems to conclude 0-9 is the best scale. 
  14. ^ Good criteria support range voting. RangeVoting.org. [2018-05-15] (英语). Definition 1: For us "Range voting" shall mean the following voting method. Each voter provides as her vote, a set of real number scores, each in [0,1], one for each candidate. The candidate with greatest score-sum, is elected. 
  15. ^ Smith, Warren D. Range voting (PDF). 2000-12 (英语). The “range voting” system is as follows. In a c-candidate election, you select a vector of c real numbers, each of absolute value ≤1, as your vote. E.g. you could vote (+1, −1, +.3, −.9, +1) in a five-candidate election. The vote-vectors are summed to get a c-vector x and the winner is the i such that xi is maximum. 
  16. ^ Balinski, Michel; Laraki, Rida. A theory of measuring, electing, and ranking. 美国国家科学院院刊. 2007, 104 (21): 8720–8725. PMC 1885569可免费查阅. PMID 17496140. doi:10.1073/pnas.0702634104 (英语). 
  17. ^ Fabre, Adrien. Tie-breaking the highest median: Alternatives to the majority judgment (PDF). Social Choice and Welfare. 2020. doi:10.1007/s00355-020-01269-9 (英语). 
  18. ^ STAR Voting. Equal Vote Coalition. [2018-07-14]. (原始内容存档于2020-07-01) (英语). 
  19. ^ STAR voting an intriguing innovation. The Register Guard. [2018-07-14] (英语). 
  20. ^ Are we witnessing the cutting edge of voting reform?. Independent voter news. 2018-02-01 [2018-07-14] (美国英语). 
  21. ^ Majority approval voting. Electowiki. [2018-08-26] (英语). 
  22. ^ 3-2-1 voting. Electowiki (英语). 
  23. ^ Quinn, Jameson. Make. All. Votes. Count. (Part II: Single-winner). Jameson Quinn. 2017-05-28 [2018-07-14] (英语). 
  24. ^ Reweighted range voting – A PR voting method that feels like range voting. RangeVoting.org. [2018-03-24] (英语). 
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基数投票制
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