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大规模开放在线课堂

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慕课海报中的每一个字母带可协商性问题,以探讨慕课(大规模开发式在线课程)的含义。
慕课海报中的每一个字母带可协商性问题,以探讨慕课(大规模开发式在线课程)的含义。
Dave Cormier讲到MOOC。
Dave Cormier讲到MOOC。

大规模开放在线课堂(课程),又称慕课(英语:Massive Open Online Course/MOOC),是一种针对于大众人群的在线课堂,人们可以通过网络来学习在线课堂。MOOC是远程教育的最新发展,它通过开放教育资源的形式发展而来。[1]

MOOC的设计和课堂参与类似于学院和大学课堂,但MOOC一般不会像在校付费的学生那样要求学分。尽管如此,学习的奖励可能通过证书来证明。

MOOC起源于开放教育资源运动和学习连接主义的思潮。最近,大量MOOC类似的计划已经独立地浮出水面,例如Coursera, Udacity, edX和Marginal Revolution University [2];华文MOOC自2012年开始布局,至2014年较知名的MOOC网站包括MOOC学院学堂在线ewant育网、Share Course、Proera等。这些引人注目的计划的创始者投资机构和金融投资,帮助MOOC在2012年获取了显著的公众关注。[3]

MOOC没有完全既定的定义,但有两个显著的特点:

  • Open access/开放共享:MOOC参与者不必是在校的注册学生,也不要求学费,它是让大家共享的。
  • Scalability/可扩张性:许多传统课堂针对于一小群学生对应一位老师,但MOOC里的“大规模”课堂是针对于不确定的参与者而言来设计的。

早期MOOC的其它特点,例如内容的开放授权,开放结构和学习目标,以社群为中心等的特点,它们也不是在所有MOOC计划里都出现。[4]

学分和学位化

部分大学通过edX平台进行的MOOC,例如微硕士(MicroMasters)和可兑换学分课程(Credit-Eligible) 在修读完在线课程后,可衔接升读相关大学的学位课程。然而,这些在线课程并非免费,部分更索价逾千美元。[5][6]

参考资料

  1. ^ Kaplan Andreas M., Haenlein Michael (2016) Higher education and the digital revolution: About MOOCs, SPOCs, social media, and the Cookie Monster, Business Horizons, Volume 59.
  2. ^ Smith, Lindsey "5 education providers offering MOOCs now or in the future页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆)". July 31, 2012.
  3. ^ Laura Pappano. The Year of the MOOC - The New York Times页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). November 2, 2012
  4. ^ Wiley, David. "The MOOC Misnomer页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆)". July, 2012
  5. ^ Gordon, Adam. 'MicroMasters' Surge As MOOCs Go From Education To Qualification. Forbes. [2018-03-01]. (原始内容存档于2021-01-29) (英语). 
  6. ^ Williams, Terri. MicroMasters: The Bridge Between a Bachelor’s Degree and a Graduate Degree. ThoughtCo. 2017-11-19 [2018-09-27]. (原始内容存档于2020-10-20). 

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