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宽恕

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宽恕,或饶恕原谅,是一种自愿行为,其中行为人(即受害者)放弃针对加害方的消极感情(复仇等),甚至还能为对方祝好[1][2][3]。宽恕常被视为一种美德宗教学心理学社会学等学科会研究其作用及原理。宽恕通常是个人行为,但源自国家和司法的行为,也有可能使用宽恕这个词。“宽恕”是修行上一个很重要的起点。没有宽恕的心,再怎么讲“爱”都是不足的。[4]

研究

亲密关系中与宽恕近似的情感
亲密关系中与宽恕近似的情感

心理学上尚未对宽恕的定义达成一致,不过最起码它是一个延续的“过程”,同时心理学家已经提出了一系列描述此过程的模型[5]。此外还有研究注重宽恕程度在人际间的差异,如神经质和易怒的人即使在很长一段时间之后也很难原谅加害者,甚至会筹划报复行为[6]

而容易原谅别人的人通常活得更加开心、健康[7]。有研究显示这类人的循环系统神经系统都比不容易原谅他人者更加健康[8][9]斯坦福大学的弗雷德·拉斯金(Fred Luskin)博士发现可以通过学习使得人更加宽容,从而更加健康[10][11]

宽恕原谅是一种可遇不可求的行为,尽管受害者原谅凶手,是一件值得赞许的事情,但期望暴力犯罪的受害者原谅凶手,是一种非常无礼的行为、更是一种对他人的冒犯。[12]

宽恕与司法的关系

宽恕常常指个人的行为;相较之下,赦免则是由特定的社会代表(如法官)宣布不再追究加害方的责任,未必代表受害人的主观意见。[2]但在法律上宽恕实际也有效力,如债权人可借此放弃对借债者的追究[13][14];另外,宽恕在修复式司法中扮演一定的角色,虽然让受害者原谅加害者未必是修复式司法的目的,但不可否认,修复式司法本身和宽恕息息相关。[15][16]

此外在中文语境中,“宽恕”也有可能应用于司法领域由政府机关所做出的行为,且可能指称减轻处罚,而不一定指完全免除处罚,像例如中华民国的《公平交易法》中的“宽恕政策”,指的是参与联合垄断行为的企业,在配合主管机关调查联合垄断的状况下,可以不受到处罚,或者得以减轻处罚,而未必单指完全不处罚的状况;[17]在英语中,指称“赦免”的Pardon一词,和指称“原谅”的forgiveness被一些字典给列为同义词。[18]

相关条目

参考文献

  1. ^ Graham, Michael C. Facts of Life: ten issues of contentment. Outskirts Press. 2014: 268. ISBN 978-1-4787-2259-5. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 American Psychological Association. Forgiveness: A Sampling of Research Results. (PDF). 2006 [2009-02-07]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2011-06-26). 
  3. ^ What Is Forgiveness?页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) The Greater Good Science Center, University of California, Berkeley
  4. ^ Sikila. 「寬恕」--- 道途上重要的起點. 观音之爱. [2021-06-21]. (原始内容存档于2020-10-09). 
  5. ^ Cordova, J., Cautilli, J., Simon, C. & Axelrod-Sabtig, R (2006). Behavior Analysis of Forgiveness in Couples Therapy. IJBCT, 2(2), Pg. 192 BAO页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  6. ^ Maltby, J., Wood, A. M., Day, L., Kon, T. W. H., Colley, A., and Linley, P. A. (2008). Personality predictors of levels of forgiveness two and a half years after the transgression.页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1088-1094.
  7. ^ Forgiving (Campaign for Forgiveness Research). 2006 [2006-06-19]. (原始内容存档于2006-06-15). 
  8. ^ Van Oyen, C. Witvilet, T.E. Ludwig and K. L. Vander Lann, "Granting Forgiveness or Harboring Grudges: Implications for Emotions, Physiology and Health," Psychological Science no. 12 (2001):117-23
  9. ^ S. Sarinopoulos, "Forgiveness and Physical Health: A Doctoral Dissertation Summary," World of Forgiveness no. 2 (2000): 16-18
  10. ^ Learningtoforgive.com. Learningtoforgive.com. 2014-06-20 [2016-05-25]. (原始内容存档于2016-06-09). 
  11. ^ Worldwide Forgiveness Alliance. Forgivenessday.org. 2015-11-13 [2015-12-23]. (原始内容存档于2005-02-13). 
  12. ^ RJI STAFF. Does Restorative Justice Mean Forgiveness?. Restorative Justice International. [2021-05-17]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-17). 
  13. ^ DEBT FORGIVENESS页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) OECD, Glossary of Statistical Terms (2001)
  14. ^ Loan Forgiveness页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) Glossary, US Department of Education
  15. ^ Jac Armstrong. Restorative Justice as a Pathway for Forgiveness: How Could Forgiveness Operate within the Criminal Justice System?. A Journey through Forgiveness. 2010: 179–190. doi:https://doi.org/10.1163/9781848880481_020 请检查|doi=值 (帮助). 
  16. ^ Everette L. Worthington, Jr. The Handbook of Forgiveness. Routledge. 2005: 491–502 [2021-05-17]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-17). 
  17. ^ 寬恕政策之常見問答. 公平交易委员会. 公平交易委员会. [2021-05-21]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-21). 
  18. ^ Pardon Synonyms, Pardon Antonyms. Merriam-Webster Thesaurus. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. [2021-05-22]. (原始内容存档于2021-06-06). 

书目

  • Balancing the Scales of Justices with Forgiveness and Repentance, Randall J. Cecrle, 2007, ISBN 1-60266-041-7
  • The Power of Forgiveness, Marcus G. 2011, Sapients.Net
  • Radical Forgiveness: Making Room for the Miracle, Colin Tipping, 1997, ISBN 0-9704814-1-1
  • Forgiving and Not Forgiving: Why Sometimes It's Better Not to Forgive, Jeanne Safer, 2000, ISBN 0-380-79471-3
  • Forgiveness: a Philosophical Exploration (Cambridge University Press, 2007), by Charles Griswold. ISBN 978-0-521-70351-2.
  • Hein, David. "Regrets Only: A Theology of Remorse." The Anglican 33, no. 4 (October 2004): 5-6.
  • Hein, David. Austin Farrer on Justification and Sanctification. The Anglican Digest. 2007, 49 (1): 51–54. 
  • Konstan, David, Before Forgiveness: The Origins of a Moral Idea (Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
  • Kramer, J. and Alstad D., The Guru Papers: Masks of Authoritarian Power, 1993, ISBN 1-883319-00-5
  • Lampert, K.(2005); Traditions of Compassion: From Religious Duty to Social Activism. Palgrave-Macmillan; ISBN 1-4039-8527-8
  • Fred Luskin, Ph.D. Forgive for Good: A Proven Prescription for Health and Happiness (Harper, 2002)
  • Murphy, J. and Hampton, J. Forgiveness and Mercy (Cambridge University Press, 1988).
  • Norlock, K. Forgiveness from a Feminist Perspective (Lexington Books, 2009).
  • Pettigrove, G. Forgiveness and Love (Oxford University Press, 2012).
  • Schmidt D. (2003); The Prayer of Revenge: Forgiveness in the Face of Injustice; ISBN 0-7814-3942-6
  • Toxic Parents: Overcoming Their Hurtful Legacy and Reclaiming Your Life, Susan Forward, 1990.
  • The Railway Man: A POW's Searing Account of War, Brutality, and Forgiveness, Eric Lomax,

外部链接

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宽恕
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