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岁星纪年

维基百科,自由的百科全书

岁星纪年中国古代曾经使用的一种纪年方法。古代中国人注意到,岁星木星)大约每12年运行一周天,由此便产生了岁星纪年法,在春秋战国时十分流行。这种历法把黄道附近一周天由西向东分为十二星次,岁星每年行一星次,十二星次的名称分别为:星纪、玄枵、娵訾、降娄、大梁、实沈、鹑首、鹑火、鹑尾、寿星、大火、析木。岁星运行方向自西向东,正与周天十二辰自东向西的分配相反。

由于岁星实际运行为11.86年一周天,因而每过85.7年,岁星实际所在星次比人们推演出来的星次提前一次,称为“超次”或“超辰”。西汉末年的刘歆发现超次问题,但他提出岁星“百四十四岁一超次”[1],与实际天象不相符。超次问题提出后未引发重视,因为岁星纪年不久便被干支纪年取代。而干支纪年又源自太岁纪年,即人为设置一个假想的天体太岁,运行轨道与岁星相同而方向相反,整十二年运行一周天。

岁星、十二辰、太岁对照表[2]
(本表岁星及十二辰方位与太岁纪年的对应关系为战国晚期的天象)
太岁纪年(自东向西)
岁星纪年十二星次(自西向东) 寿星 大火 析木 星纪 玄枵 娵訾 降娄 大梁 实沈 鹑首 鹑火 鹑尾
对应黄道十二星座 天秤座 天蝎座 人马座
(射手座)
摩羯座
(山羊座)
宝瓶座
(水瓶座)
双鱼座 白羊座
(牡羊座)
金牛座 双子座 巨蟹座 狮子座 室女座
(处女座)
对应二十八宿
太阳视运动十二辰(自东向西)

参阅

注释

  1. ^ “顺帝汉安二年,尚书侍郎边韶上言:‘……其后刘歆研机极深,验之春秋,参以易道,以河图帝览嬉、雒书(甄)〔干〕曜度推广九道,百七十一岁进退六十三分,百四十四岁一超次,与天相应,少有阙谬。’” 律曆中·漢安論曆. 後漢書. 
  2. ^ 钱穆,秦汉史,北京:生活·读书·新知三联书店,2005年,第128页


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岁星纪年
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