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异性恋

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异性恋亦称为异性向,一般指对异性(包括生理性别及性别认同为当事人的异性)能产生爱慕感、建立浪漫关系,或认为异性拥有性吸引力的一种现象。把异性恋视作性倾向时,其定义则为“一种对异性产生的持久情感、喜爱、爱情和/或性吸引力的模式”;它“亦指人的一种性认同——该认同依据这些因素而作出:受到异性吸引、相关行为、其他同样受到异性吸引的人所组成的群体”[1][2]。异性恋在某些情况下会被称为“直”。

它是三大主要性倾向分类之一,与双性恋同性恋并列于性取向连续体之内[1]。不论社会文化,异性恋者皆为人口中最为普遍的群体[3]。科学界尚未确切了解性倾向的成因,不过他们相信性倾向是由基因、激素和环境的共同作用所促成[4][5][6],且不认为它是一种选择[4][5][7]。尽管单一成因理论尚未得到广泛支持,但科学界偏向支持有生物性基础的理论[4]。与社会性成因相比,相对较多证据支持性倾向的非社会性生物学成因[3][8][9]

人口统计

由于缺乏可靠的数据,某一种性取向的人口往往难以确定。纵观人类性史,不同社会的态度和行为存有不少差异。根据主流研究的结果,89-98%的人在其一生中只跟异性有过性接触[10][11][12][13],但若受访者报称受到同性所吸引或进行过同性性行为时,这一数字便会跌至79–84%[13]。在一项2006年发表的研究中,80%的匿名受访者报称受到异性所吸引,但97-98%受访者表示他们是异性恋者[14]。一项1992年发表的研究表示,93.9%的英国男性总是有异性恋经历,法国则有95.9%[15]

相关条目

  • 异性恋主义
  • 婚姻:传统上是男女两个人依一定的法律、伦理和风俗的规定所建立起来的夫妇关系。
  • 好人文化:1990年代以后,在台湾等地男女交往问题发展出来的一种网络文化次文化。

参考资料

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Sexual orientation, homosexuality and bisexuality. American Psychological Association. [August 10, 2013]. (原始内容存档于August 8, 2013). 
  2. ^ APA California Amicus Brief (PDF). Courtinfo.ca.gov. [2013-10-11]. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Bailey, J. Michael; Vasey, Paul; Diamond, Lisa; Breedlove, S. Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 2016, 17 (2): 45–101. PMID 27113562. doi:10.1177/1529100616637616. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Frankowski BL; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence. Sexual orientation and adolescents. Pediatrics. June 2004, 113 (6): 1827–32. PMID 15173519. doi:10.1542/peds.113.6.1827. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Lamanna, Mary Ann; Riedmann, Agnes; Stewart, Susan D. Marriages, Families, and Relationships: Making Choices in a Diverse Society. Cengage Learning. 2014: 82 [February 11, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-305-17689-8. The reason some individuals develop a gay sexual identity has not been definitively established  – nor do we yet understand the development of heterosexuality. The American Psychological Association (APA) takes the position that a variety of factors impact a person's sexuality. The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors...is shaped at an early age...[and evidence suggests] biological, including genetic or inborn hormonal factors, play a significant role in a person's sexuality (American Psychological Association 2010). 
  6. ^ Gail Wiscarz Stuart. Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2014: 502 [February 11, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-323-29412-6. No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree that biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation. 
  7. ^ Gloria Kersey-Matusiak. Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care. Springer Publishing Company. 2012: 169 [February 10, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-8261-9381-0. Most health and mental health organizations do not view sexual orientation as a 'choice.' 
  8. ^ LeVay, Simon. Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why: The Science of Sexual Orientation. Oxford University Press. 2017. ISBN 9780199752966. 
  9. ^ Balthazart, Jacques. The Biology of Homosexuality. Oxford University Press. 2012. ISBN 9780199838820. 
  10. ^ Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.[页码请求]
  11. ^ Wellings, K., Field, J., Johnson, A., & Wadsworth, J. (1994). Sexual behavior in Britain: The national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles. London, UK: Penguin Books.[页码请求]
  12. ^ Bogaert AF. The prevalence of male homosexuality: the effect of fraternal birth order and variations in family size. Journal of Theoretical Biology. September 2004, 230 (1): 33–7. PMID 15275997. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2004.04.035.  Bogaert argues that: "The prevalence of male homosexuality is debated. One widely reported early estimate was 10% (e.g., Marmor, 1980; Voeller, 1990). Some recent data provided support for this estimate (Bagley and Tremblay, 1998), but most recent large national samples suggest that the prevalence of male homosexuality in modern western societies, including the United States, is lower than this early estimate (e.g., 1–2% in Billy et al., 1993; 2–3% in Laumann et al., 1994; 6% in Sell et al., 1995; 1–3% in Wellings et al., 1994). It is of note, however, that homosexuality is defined in different ways in these studies. For example, some use same-sex behavior and not same-sex attraction as the operational definition of homosexuality (e.g., Billy et al., 1993); many sex researchers (e.g., Bailey et al., 2000; Bogaert, 2003; Money, 1988; Zucker and Bradley, 1995) now emphasize attraction over overt behavior in conceptualizing sexual orientation." (p. 33) Also: "...the prevalence of male homosexuality (in particular, same-sex attraction) varies over time and across societies (and hence is a "moving target") in part because of two effects: (1) variations in fertility rate or family size; and (2) the fraternal birth order effect. Thus, even if accurately measured in one country at one time, the rate of male homosexuality is subject to change and is not generalizable over time or across societies." (p. 33)
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Hope, Debra A (编). Contemporary Perspectives on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identities. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 54. 2009. ISBN 978-0-387-09555-4. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-09556-1. 
  14. ^ McConaghy et al., 2006
  15. ^ Sexual Behavior Levels Compared in Studies In Britain and France. nytimes.com. 8 December 1992. 
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异性恋
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