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异性恋

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异性恋(英语:Heterosexuality)亦称为异性向,一般指对异性(包括生理性别及性别认同为当事人的异性)产生爱慕感、建立浪漫关系,或认为异性拥有性吸引力的一种现象。把异性恋视作性倾向时,其定义则为“一种对异性产生的持久情感、喜爱、爱情和/或性吸引力的模式”;它“亦指人的一种性认同——该认同依据这些因素而作出:受到异性吸引、相关行为、其他同样受到异性吸引的人所组成的群体”[1][2]。异性恋者在某些情况下会被称为“直人”。

它是三大主要性倾向分类之一,与双性恋同性恋并列于性取向连续体之内[1]。社会大多数人都是异性恋者,不论其文化如何。而异性性行为是迄今为止最常见的性行为类型[3][4]

科学界尚未确切了解性取向的形成原因,不过他们相信性取向是由基因激素环境的共同作用所促成[5][6][7],且不认为它是一种选择[5][6][8]。尽管并没有一个有关性取向成因的理论得到科学界广泛支持,但他们仍偏向支持有生物性基础的理论[5]。与社会性成因相比,相对较多证据支持性倾向的非社会性生物学成因[3][9][10]

尽管异性恋一词在大多情况下皆用在人类身上,但很多动物皆有表现出异性恋行为,因为其是有性生殖所必须的。

用词

“Hetero-” 一词源自希腊语“ἕτερος”(héteros),即“他者”或“他人”[11]。在科学应用上,“Hetero-”此一前缀即解作“不同”[12]

当今对于“heterosexual”的应用源于19世纪的人格分类学。卡尔·玛丽亚·克尔特贝尼英语Karl Maria Kertbeny于1869年创造了“heterosexual”和“homosexual”(同性恋)这两个字词[13]。在十九世纪末,没什么人会使用这两个字词,直到理查德·克拉夫特·埃宾英语Richard von Krafft-Ebing和艾伯特·莫尔于1890年左右重新引入之,有关情况才得以改变[13]。从1920年代早期开始,不少专著皆会采用该一名词 ,但大众在1960年代开始才广泛应用之。俗称“hetero”最早可追溯到1933年。而抽象名词“heterosexuality”则最早见于1900年[14]。“heterosexual” 一词亦收录于梅里厄姆-韦伯斯特的1923年版《新国际词典》(New International Dictionary),当中视之为一个医学用语,指的是“对于异性的病态迷恋”;不过在1934年推出的“第二版(未删节本)”当中,其定义为“对于异性的性激情体现;正常的性” [15]

在非正式场合下[16],该一用词可简写成“hetero”[17]。“直人”一词则始于20世纪中期的LGBT用语,用于形容异性恋者。它源自“走直路”(暗指停止同性恋行为)此一短语,作家J.W.亨利于1941年以此一方式使用“走直路”一词,使之成为此一用语的首批使用者[18]。亨利的书包含了与男同性恋者的对话,当中“走直路”是用于形容那些被指已脱离同性恋的人。不过到了当今,其则已变成表示某人是异性恋者的通俗用语。有些人反对“直人”等用语,因为它们在暗示非异性恋者都是“走歪路”[19]

人口统计

贝利(Bailey)等人在2016年发表了一篇综述,于当中估计指“在所有文化中,绝大多数人都认为只有异性才有性吸引力(即异性恋)”,而且“性取向人口统计会随着时间地点的改变而出现很大差异”的说法没有得到令人说服的证据证明[3]。 一男一女之间的异性性行为仍是最为普遍的性社交(sociosexual)行为[4]

根据主流研究的结果,89-98%的人在其一生中只跟异性有过性接触[20][21][22][23],但若受访者报称受到同性所吸引或进行过同性性行为时,这一数字便会跌至79–84%[23]

在一项1992年发表的研究中,93.9%的英国男性报称他只有异性恋经验。在法国,则有95.9%的男性如此表示[24]。根据2008年的一项调查,85%的英国人只跟异性有过性接触,94%自我认同为异性恋者[25]英国国家统计署于2010年的调查发现,95%的英国人自我认同为异性恋者,1.5%自认为双性恋者或同性恋者,3.5%则给出了其他的答案,像是“不知道”、“其他”,乃至不回答[26][27]。威廉斯研究所于2011年4月就美国的情况发表了一份报告,当中指96%的成年人口(亦即约2.5亿人)为异性恋者[28][29]

盖洛普于2012年10月发表了一项前所未有的人口统计信息,当中显示96.6%的美国成年人自认为异性恋者(误差率为±1%)[30]。其结果如下:

年龄/性别 异性恋 非异性恋 不知道/拒绝回答
18–29 90.1% 6.4% 3.5%
30–49 93.6% 3.2% 3.2%
50–64 93.1% 2.6% 4.3%
65+ 91.5% 1.9% 6.5%
18–29,女性 88.0% 8.3% 3.8%
18–29,男性 92.1% 4.6% 3.3%

YouGov于2015年访问了美国1,000名成年人,受访者当中有89%自认为异性恋者,4%自认为同性恋者(2%自认为男同志,另外2%自认为女同志),4%自认为双性恋者[31]

贝利等人于2016年的综述中写道,在近来的西方调查当中,约93%的男性和87%的女性自认为绝对的异性恋者,约4%的男性和10%的女性自认为“大多是”异性恋者[3]

学术研究

生物学与环境

人类的性取向并不由某个单一的因素决定,反之科学家认为其由基因、激素和环境的共同作用所促成[5][6][7]。他们仍偏向支持有生物性基础的理论[3][5],因为与社会性成因相比,相对较多证据支持性倾向的非社会性生物学成因,对于男性的情况而言更是如此[3][9][10]

异性恋倾向的形成因子有基因、产前激素、脑部结构、这些因子与环境的互动。

产前激素

雄激素受体复合物之结构[32]
睾酮在脑部男性化上扮演一定角色
雌二醇同样会刺激雄激素受体

研究者已对脑部男性化的神经生物机转进行了不少研究。5α还原酶会把雌二醇睾酮催化成双氢睾酮,其在脑部扮演着雄激素受体的角色,使之男性化。若某人的雄激素受体过少(雄性素不敏感症候群英语androgen insensitivity syndrome患者)或雄激素过多(患有先天性肾上腺增生症的女性),那么其生心理皆会受到影响[33]。部分研究认为异性恋男性和异性恋女性皆为此一过程之结果[34]。 在这些研究中,女同性恋者的男性化程度比起女异性恋者为高。而有关异性恋男性的研究结果则出现矛盾。有些研究显示其男性化程度比男同性恋者为高,亦有的显示较低的男性化水平。

动物与繁殖

正在交配的倭黑猩猩
在半空交配的食蚜蝇

动物界以异性性行为的方式来进行有性生殖,不过也有些动物会进行无性生殖,后者的例子有原生动物、较低等的无脊椎动物[35]

异性恋取向并不是进行繁殖所必须的,因为性取向指的是自身长期在性和情感上偏好于特定性别的模式,而这常会使人建立长久的社会纽带;而繁殖则只需要以精子去为卵子受精[36][37][38]

性向认同流动

性取向和性取向认同在很多时候并没有好好区分开来,而这点可以影响研究者能否准确评估当事人的性向认同,以及性取向能否改变;性向认同可以在人的一生中出现变化,而其可符合,亦可不符合当事人的生物性别、性行为、实际的性取向[39][40][41]。性取向则为恒定的,绝大多数人的性取向不会出现任何变化 。不过仍有研究显示一些人的性取向确会出现改变,女性比男性更容易出现这种情况[42]。美国心理学会把性取向(认为特定性别具有恒久的吸引力)和性向认同(在某人一生中可出现变化)区分开来[43]

2012年的一项研究发现,在2,560名成年研究对象中,有2%的人在10年后报称性向认同出现了变化。就男性的情况而言,0.78%过去自认为异性恋者,9.52%自认为同性恋者,47%自认为双性恋者的人士出现了性向认同上的改变。女性则有1.36%过去自认为异性恋者,63.6%自认为同性恋者,64.7%自认为双性恋者的人士出现了某种认同上的改变[44]

丽莎·M·戴蒙德英语Lisa M. Diamond在一项2年跨度的研究中研究了80名非异性恋的青少年女性(16-23岁),结果显示过半研究对象不只一次地改变了自己的性向认同。其中三分之一在两年的追踪内改变了自身的性向认向。戴蒙德总结道:“尽管(特定性别对于对象的)吸引力是相对稳定的,但性认同和行为则有着更多的流动性”[45]

异性恋为主是一种性取向或境遇性性行为,其特征为少量同性性行为,再配上大多为异性恋的取向。此一特点使之跟双性恋区分开来。研究者已把之归作“大多是直的”[46]

改变性取向的尝试

改变性取向的尝试是指旨在改变性取向的方法,它们一般用以将双性恋者或同性恋者转化成异性恋者。科学家和精神健康专家大多并不会视性取向为一种选择[5][8]。没有足够科学严谨的研究证明改变性取向的尝试是有效的[47]

社会文化

一对亲密的异性伴侣
一对亲密的异性伴侣

核心家庭以一男一女所结成的亲密关系为中心[48]。纵观历史,许多社会都会要求伴侣在成家前结婚,但这一规则的执行或遵守情况却有着很多差异。

符号

一个异性恋符号
一个异性恋符号

异性恋符号可追溯至人类的早期文物,比如性别符号、仪式上的生育雕刻、史前艺术。之后有关符号亦可见于生育礼和多神崇拜,它们一般像印度教林伽般,包含人类的生殖器图像。当代的异性恋符号仍然以这些传统信仰为基础。其中一个符号包含了罗马战神玛尔斯和爱与美之女神维纳斯两者的象征——分别代表男女两方,以及相应的气质。此一符号的Unicode字符为⚤(U+26A4)。

历史学观点

若没有其他性取向作对照物,那么异性恋一词则没有需要创造出来。乔纳森·内德·卡茨(Jonathan Ned Katz)将当今对于异性恋的定义追溯到19世纪末[49]。根据卡茨的观点,维多利亚时代的人只将性当作繁殖的一种手段,两性的性关系并不那么公开。身体则只是为了繁殖而存在的工具——“当时的人认为人的能量是封闭和严重受限的,故此与把之浪费在性享乐上相比,倒不如花多点时间于生儿育女和工作上”[49]

卡茨认为当代对于情色性的观念始于19世纪后期的德美两国。不断变化的经济和“家庭从生产者转变成消费者”[49] ,致使价值观出现改变。在维多利亚时代行之有效的伦理观开始出现变化,快乐成为一项拥有很高价值的事物,这使得人类性观念亦有所变化。消费者文化为情色创造了市场、快乐则成了一项商品。同时医师在性议题上更有影响力。他们把“正常的爱”放在医学框架下看待。按他们的定义,“正常的爱”是“男女关系新理想的一部分,其中包括基本的、必要的、正常的情欲”[49]。“维多利亚性变态”则为其反面——即任何不遵守性规范者。他们把健康正常的性吸引定为仅存于两性之间。“对于性反常的关注,产生给正常的性命名的需求,以更好地将他或她的‘一般性’,跟它的‘反常性’区分开来”[49]

宗教观点

根据亚伯拉罕诸教创世神话亚当与夏娃是首对人类伴侣兼全人类的祖先
在印度教中,林伽湿婆的阴茎)和约尼夏克提的子宫)仍是受到敬拜的异性恋象征

犹太-基督教的典籍中,有几段经文跟异性恋有关。《创世记》上写道,神创造女人是因为“那人独居不好、我要为他造一个配偶帮助他。”(创世记2章第18节),因此“人要离开父母、与妻子连合、二人成为一体。”(创世记2章第24节)。

世上很多宗教皆对异性婚姻持宽容态度,但当中亦有例外,比如某些佛教和印度教派别、一神普救派大都会社群教会英语Metropolitan Community Church、一些普世圣公宗教区、一些贵格会加拿大联合教会、犹太教内的改革派保守派 [50][51]

尽管几乎所有宗教皆容许一男一女在符合教义的情况下进行性行为,但亦有少数认为这是一种罪恶,比如震教徒和谐协会英语Harmony Society埃弗拉塔修道院英语Ephrata Cloister。它们认为所有形式的性关系皆为罪恶,并提倡独身。一些宗教认为只有担任某些特定职位的人才需要独身,比如天主教教士。不过天主教会认为异性婚姻是神圣而必要的[52]

异性恋本位与异性恋主义

此一标志经常印于直人骄傲T恤上
此一标志经常印于直人骄傲T恤上

异性恋本位是一种提倡异性恋是人们正常或首选性取向的世界观。它对于男女的性别角色有一定固化作用。迈克尔·华纳英语Michael Warner于1991年使此一用词更广为人知[53]。很多性与性别研究者认为强迫异性恋为异性恋本位的一个面向[54]。强迫异性恋是指一种想法,其认为“父权社会假定或强迫女性们一定要成为异性恋者”。在这种社会底下,人们会将异性恋视为两性的自然倾向或义务[55]

异性恋主义是一种偏袒于异性关系的偏见或歧视。假定每个人都是异性恋者,乃至歧视同性恋者、无性恋者、异性恋为主者、跨性别者、非二元性别者,都可能属于异性恋主义。

直人骄傲英语Straight pride是一句于1980年代后期至1990年代早期兴起的口号。社会保守主义者经常把之当作一种政见或政治策略使用[56]。 评论家指此一用语是用于回应LGBT人士于1970年代早期开始采用的“同志骄傲[57][58][59]

参见

参考资料

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