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异氰酸酯

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异氰酸酯通式
异氰酸酯通式

异氰酸酯是一类由异氰酸衍生出的,通式为R-N=C=O,是氰酸酯R-O-C≡N的异构体。根据分子中酯基个数的不同,可分为单异氰酸酯、二异氰酸酯等。二异氰酸酯可用于生产聚氨酯

通常以少一个碳原子的为原料,通过与光气反应引入异氰酸基。[1]实验室中,异氰酸酯可通过酰基叠氮的Curtius重排反应异羟肟酸Lossen重排反应制取。

含有异氰酸酯官能基之有机化合物与反应生成氨基甲酸酯,具有2个异氰酸酯官能基之异氰酸酯称为二异氰酸酯(di-isocyanate),以二异氰酸酯为原料与polyols 可合成聚氨酯(polyurethanes)。 二异氰酸酯与的反应可合成聚脲。脂肪族的异氰酸酯自身聚合,生成的三聚体称为双缩脲

二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯(MDI)中环碳原子的编号
二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯(MDI)中环碳原子的编号

常见的单异氰酸酯如异氰酸甲酯(methyl isocyanate, MIC),用于生产杀虫剂。另外,亦有研究指电子烟亦会产犍异氰酸酯[2]

常见的二异氰酸酯

常见的二异氰酸酯包括甲苯二异氰酸酯(TDI)、异佛尔酮二异氰酸酯(IPDI)、二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯(MDI)、二环己基甲烷二异氰酸酯(HMDI)、赖氨酸二异氰酸酯(LDI)。在公元2000年, 全球市场对于二异氰酸酯之需求 4.4 million tonnes, 其中 61.3% 是二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯( methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, MDI), 34.1% 是甲苯二异氰酸酯 (toluene diisocyanate, TDI), 3.4% 是二环己基甲烷二异氰酸酯( hexamethylene diisocyanate, HDI) 和异佛尔酮二异氰酸酯(isophorone diisocyanate, IPDI), 其他二异氰酸酯为 1.2%.

参见

参考资料

  1. ^ Randall, D. The Polyurethanes Book. Wiley. 2002. ISBN 0-470-85041-8. 
  2. ^ 瑞士实验室发现IQOS电子烟会产生剧毒物质. cnBeta. 2019-04-14 [2019-04-15]. (原始内容存档于2021-05-15) (中文(简体)). 

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异氰酸酯
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