当代史（英语：Contemporary history）是在时间轴上与当前紧密相连的历史，是现代史的特定角度，即现在的历史，或是与个人相关的历史。当代史一词早在19世纪就已使用，并在21世纪成为一门领域。从最广义的意义上来说，当代史是仍处在人们生活记忆（living memory）中的历史，基于人类的预期寿命约为80年，当代史大约为从目前往前80年的时间。以2010年代来说，这个时期所说的当代史，由1940年代之后一直至今，当中包括了第二次世界大战的战后时期、冷战等事件。
- e.g. Edinburgh review, Volume 12 (1808) p. 480 (cf., There is this general distinction between contemporary history and all other history, —that the former is a witness, the latter a judge. The opinions of a contemporary author on the events which he records, are only then authority, when the impression made on a bystander happens to be a material part of the case; nor is this any exception to the maxim, that his business is to testify, not to lecture. On facts, however, he is paramount evidence; and that, not only in the age immediately succeeding him, but also, which is generally forgotten, to the latest times. The modern historian, who consults original authorities through the-medium of some later predecessor, descends from the character of a judge to that of a faithful reporter of decisions.)
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