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后宫 (伊斯兰)

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1915年,欧洲画家笔下的后宫油画
1915年,欧洲画家笔下的后宫油画

伊斯兰世界的后宫(阿拉伯语:حرم‎),本义为禁止之地,神圣密室。起源于近东,包括阿拉伯帝国倭马亚王朝阿拔斯王朝伊朗萨法维王朝印度蒙兀儿帝国土耳其奥斯曼帝国等皇室。并通过奥斯曼帝国传入西方世界。指在一夫多妻制环境下的女性以及未成年儿子的居住场所,禁止成年男性进入。奥地利作曲家莫扎特曾以奥斯曼帝国后宫为题材创作歌剧后宫诱逃》。

奥斯曼帝国

奥斯曼帝国时期,苏丹的后宫,等级秩序严谨,以在位苏丹的母亲(称苏丹皇太后)地位最高并拥有绝对的权力,有部分苏丹皇太后甚至能代替苏丹本身执掌国政。在奥斯曼帝国初期,苏丹的四位正妻苏丹后英语Haseki sultan,其之下有多个级别的妃嫔,最高为可敦,再之下依次夫人(土耳其语Kadın[a])、幸人(土耳其语Ikbal[b]、睐人(土耳其语Gözde[c]等。后来改制,正妻改称皇后英语Kadınefendi土耳其语Kadınefendi),废除可敦位号,其他妃嫔位号不变。嫡子继位后,其生母会被尊为苏丹皇太后,若由庶子继位,其生母不得尊为皇太后,有些会由其中一位嫡母作为养母尊为苏丹皇太后。

后宫中有多名不同等级的宫女,负责不同职务。

图库

  • The Pasha in His Harem by Francois Boucher c. 1735-1739
    The Pasha in His Harem by Francois Boucher c. 1735-1739
  • Scene from the Harem, Jean-Baptiste van Mour (1st half of the 18th century)
    Scene from the Harem, Jean-Baptiste van Mour (1st half of the 18th century)
  • Scene in a Harem, by Guardi
    Scene in a Harem, by Guardi
  • The Harem as imagined by European artist, The Dormitory of the Concubines, by Ignace Melling, 1811.
    The Harem as imagined by European artist, The Dormitory of the Concubines, by Ignace Melling, 1811.
  • Gustave Boulanger: The Harem
    Gustave Boulanger: The Harem
  • Harem scene by Dominique Ingres
    Harem scene by Dominique Ingres
  • The Reception, John Frederick Lewis, 1805-1875, English
    The Reception, John Frederick Lewis, 1805-1875, English
  • Scene from the Harem by Fernand Cormon, c. 1877
    Scene from the Harem by Fernand Cormon, c. 1877
  • Harem Scene, Quintana Olleras, 1851-1919, Spanish
    Harem Scene, Quintana Olleras, 1851-1919, Spanish
  • The Harem Fountain, Frederick Arthur Bridgman, 1847-1928, American
    The Harem Fountain, Frederick Arthur Bridgman, 1847-1928, American
  • Belle of Nelson whiskey poster (1878), based on a harem scene by Jean-Léon Gérôme.
    Belle of Nelson whiskey poster (1878), based on a harem scene by Jean-Léon Gérôme.
  • In the harem, Lehnert & Landrock postcard, 1900s-1910s
    In the harem, Lehnert & Landrock postcard, 1900s-1910s
  • The Virgin of Stamboul, 1920 film poster
    The Virgin of Stamboul, 1920 film poster

注释

  1. ^ 原意为“女人”或“妻子”。
  2. ^ 原意为“幸运者”。
  3. ^ 原意为“被注视的”,即被苏丹注视。

参考书目

  • Hans Wehr. A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic: (Arabic-English), 4th ed. Spoken Language Services, 1994, s.v. حرم.
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后宫 (伊斯兰)
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