For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for 微绒毛.

微绒毛

维基百科,自由的百科全书

微绒毛
Human jejunum microvilli 2 - TEM.jpg
人小肠上皮细胞上的微绒毛
标识字符
拉丁文Microvillus
MeSHD008871
THH1.00.01.1.01011
FMAFMA:67296
显微解剖学术语英语Anatomical terms of microanatomy

微绒毛(英语:microvillus)系上皮细胞游离面由细胞膜与部分细胞质构成的指状突起[1]。其轴心由一束平行的微丝构成。微丝束对微绒毛的形态起到了支撑作用[2]。该结构可以起到扩大细胞表面积的作用[3]

微绒毛直径约为100纳米。在光镜下观察到的细胞的轮状缘或刷状缘即为排列在一起的微绒毛。在电镜下,则可清晰地观察到单根的微纤毛[1]

结构

微绒毛的轴心由一束平行的微丝构成。这束微丝起到了支撑微绒毛形态的作用。其正极指向微绒毛的顶端、下端则与终末网(terminal web)相连。微丝亦附着于黏着小带相连。这能起到固定微绒毛的作用。在微绒毛的基部,微丝束与细胞质中的中间丝相连。因不含肌球蛋白原肌球蛋白英语Tropomyosinα-辅肌动蛋白,构成微绒毛的微丝束不能收缩[2]

微绒毛的长度、数量因细胞的种类或功能而异[1][4]

功能

微绒毛使得细胞表面积增大,增强了细胞的吸收功能[1]

微绒毛的解构

当人患上某些疾病之后,由于相应细胞内部细胞骨架的重排,微绒毛可能会发生解构。这会导致营养吸收不良以及持续性的渗透性腹泻(而且病人还常常会有发烧症状)。比如,被大肠杆菌亚群EPEC感染的患者即会出现微绒毛解构的现象。[5]

小肠上皮细胞先天性地缺乏微绒毛的病症被称为微绒毛萎缩症英语Microvillous inclusion disease。这是一种罕见的遗传病,对新生儿来说常常是致命的[6][7]。 不过,微绒毛解构也有临床上的应用价值。比如,一篇发布于2004年的文章表明,人为地让白细胞表面的微绒毛解构可以对自体免疫病起到治疗作用[8]

参考文献

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 李和、李继承等. 《組織學與胚胎學》 第三版. 人民卫生出版社. 2015: 28. ISBN 978-7-117-20646-4. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 翟中和、王喜忠、丁明孝主编. 細胞生物學 第四版. 高等教育出版社. 2011: 200. ISBN 978-7-04-032175-3. 
  3. ^ Krause J. William. Krause's Essential Human Histology for Medical Students. Universal-Publishers. July 2005: 37– [25 November 2010]. ISBN 978-1-58112-468-2. (原始内容存档于2021-03-23). 
  4. ^ Mukherjee T, Williams A. A comparative study of the ultrastructure of microvilli in the epithelium of small and large intestine of mice.. J Cell Biol. 1967, 34 (2): 447–61. PMC 2107317可免费查阅. PMID 6035639. doi:10.1083/jcb.34.2.447.  link页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  5. ^ Malathy Kapali, MD, Ronald Jaffe, MD and Rocco M Agostini Jr. B.Sc. Final Diagnosis: Microvillus Inclusion Disease. http://path.upmc.edu/cases/case163/dx.html页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  6. ^ Chehade, Mirna; Sicherer, Scott H. Infantile food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. David, Timothy J (编). Recent Advances in Paediatrics 22. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press. 2005: 140. ISBN 1-85315-572-1. 
  7. ^ Mills SE, Carter D, Greenson JK, Oberman HA, Reuter V, Stoler MH. Sternberg's Diagnostic Surgical Pathology. 4th Ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Copyright 2004.ISBN 978-0-7817-4051-7.
  8. ^ Shattuck, T. Cells studied for immune function. 2004 [2016-03-12]. (原始内容存档于2016-08-20). 
{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
微绒毛
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install
{{::$root.activation.text}}

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!


Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.