性别认同 - Wikiwand
For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for 性别认同.

性别认同

维基百科,自由的百科全书

性别认同(英语:Gender identity)是个人对自己的社会性别的亲身经历。[1]性别认同可能与出生时的性别指定相关(即顺性别),也可能与其不同(即多元性别)。[2]所有社会都有一套性别类别,可以作为与其他社会成员形成一个人的身份认同的基础。[3]在大多数社会中,指定性别中的男性特质女性特质之间存在基本的分歧,[4]大多数人坚持着性别二元论,其中包括对生物性别、性别认同和性别表现所有方面的男性表现女性表现的期望。[5]在所有社会中,有些人并不认同(或不完全认同)基于生物性别性别指定[6] 其中一些人是跨性别性别酷儿者或非二元人群。有一些社会有第三性别分类。

核心的性别认同通常从三岁形成。[7][8]三岁以后,改变是很困难的,[7]并试图维持相同的性别指定可能导致性别不安[9]生物和社会因素都被认为影响性别认同的形成。

形成年龄

关于性别认同是如何以及何时形成的,有几种理论。因为儿童缺乏语言能力,所以研究人员只能从间接证据中做出假设,因此很难研究这个主题。[10]John Money认为孩子们可能早在年龄18个月到两年之间就已经意识到并且认为性别具有一定的意义,Lawrence Kohlberg认为,直到三岁时,性别认同才会形成。[10] 专家普遍认为,核心性别认同是在三岁时建立完成的。[7][8][10][11]在三岁时,孩子们可以对他们的性别认同作出坚定的陈述,[10][12]并倾向于选择适合他们性别的活动和玩具[10](如女孩的娃娃和绘画,男孩的工具和粗糙的住房),[13]虽然他们还没有完全理解社会性别的影响。[12]三岁以后,核心的性别认同改变是非常困难的,[7][14]并且无法修改指定性别可能会导致性别不安[10][15]性别认同的固化持续到四岁[14]至六岁[10][16],并持续到青春期。[14]

Martin和Ruble将这一发展过程概念化为三个阶段:(1)作为幼儿和学龄前儿童,儿童学习认定的性别社会化特征。(2)年龄在5-7岁左右,性别认同得到巩固并变得僵化。(3)在这种“僵化高峰”之后,流动性回归,社会定义的性别角色的认知有所缓和些。[17]Barbara Newmann将其分为四个部分:(1)理解性别概念。(2)学习性别角色标准和刻板印象。(3)与父母一起认同。(4)形成性别偏好。[18]

联合国机构称,落实全方位性教育提高了对性和性别认同等主题的认识。[19]

影响形成的因素

先天与后天

尽管尚未完全理解性别认同的形成,但已提出许多因素被认为影响其发展。社会化(环境因素)与先天(生物)因素决定性别认同的程度是心理学中持续存在的争论,被称为“先天与后天”。这两个因素都被认为对性别认同起了影响。影响个体性别认同的生物因素包括产前和产后激素水平。[20]虽然基因的构成也会影响性别认同,[21]但它并不会对其产生不可逆转的影响。[22]

可能影响性别认同的社会因素包括家庭,权威人物,大众媒体以及儿童生活中其他具有影响力的人所传达对性别角色的想法。[23]当孩子由某个坚持严格性别角色的人士抚养时,他们更有可能以同样的方式行事,将他们的性别认同与相应的刻板印象的性别模式相匹配。[24]语言也发挥著作用,儿童在学习语言的同时,学会区别男性和女性特征,并下意识地将自己的行为调整为这些预定的角色。[25]社会学习理论认为,儿童通过观察和模仿与性别相关的行为,进而表现出性别认同,然后通过这种行为获得奖励或惩罚,[26]因此借由模仿和追随周围人们的性别模式来塑造人格。[27]

先天与后天争论中一个众所周知的例子是大卫·利马,也就是所谓的“约翰/琼案例”。利马在婴儿时,经历了一次错误的阉割,失去了他的男性生殖器。心理学家约翰·曼尼说服利马的父母将他当作女孩抚养。利马长大成女孩,穿着女孩衣服,周围都是女孩玩具,但感觉自己不像女孩。在他13岁时试图自杀后,利马被告知他出生时具有男性生殖器,并进行了重建手术。[28]这违背了曼尼的假设,即性别认同是由养育子女的方式决定的。[29]

生物因素

一些产前生理因素,包括基因和激素,可能会影响性别认同。[20][30]性别认同的生物理论表明人们通过这些因素而不是社会化来获得性别认同。

荷尔蒙的影响也很复杂:决定性别的激素是在胎儿发育的早期阶段产生的。[31]如果产前激素的水平发生改变,性表型的发展也可能发生改变,大脑对一种性别的自然倾向可能与婴儿外部性器官的遗传构成不一致。[来源请求][32]

激素可能影响男性和女性的言语和空间能力、记忆力和攻击性之间的差异。产前激素的暴露影响下视丘调节生命青春期的激素分泌,如女性的性激素通常在月经周期后产生,而男性的性激素不遵循这种模式。[33]

双性人

对1955到2000年的研究文献进行的一项调查显示,每100个人中就有一个人可能有一些双性人特征。[34]根据联合国人权事务高级专员办事处的说法,人类或其他动物的性别特征包括染色体、性腺、性激素或生殖器的变异导致“不符合男性或女性身体的典型二元概念”。[35]双性人的变异可能使婴儿时期的性别指定复杂化,[36]并且该指定可能与孩子未来的性别认同不一致。[37]透过性别指定疗法来使性别特征更符合指定性别可能会侵犯人权[38][39]

2005年对以女性身份被抚养长大的双性人,出生时XY染色体,阴茎发育不全,膀胱泄漏性外翻及阴茎外伤的性别认同研究,结果发现78%的研究对像以女性生活,而22%的人决定根据其遗传染色体为男性而进行性别变更。[40]该研究得出结论:“研究结果清楚地表明,在婴儿或幼儿期性别指定为女性后,后来患者决定性别重新登记给男性的机会增加,但与产前接受雄激素就完全确定核心性别认同的概念不相符。”

一份2012年的临床评论文章发现,有8.5%至20%的双性人患有性别不安[41]澳大利亚的社会学研究表明,19%出生时具有非典型性别特征的人最后选择了“X”或“其他”性别选择,而52%是女性,23%是男性,6 %不确定。出生时,研究中52%的人被指定到女性,41%被指定到男性。[42][43]

社会和环境因素

1955年,约翰·曼尼提出性别认同具有可塑性,并取决于儿童在幼儿时期被扶养为男性还是女性。[44][45]曼尼的假设从此失去了信誉,[45][46]但学者们继续研究社会因素对性别认同形成的影响。[45]在1960年至1970年,像是父亲离世,母亲对女儿的愿望或父母刻意培养性别认同等因素被认为是社会因素。最近的一些理论认为,父母的精神病理学问题可能影响部分的性别认同的形成只得到了极少的经验证据,[45]2004年的一篇文章指出“缺乏对出生后社会因素的重要性确凿证据”。[47]2008年的一项研究发现,除了母亲的轻度抑郁症之外,性别不安儿童的父母没有表现出任何精神病理学问题的迹象。[45][48]

有人认为,尽管证据很少,但孩子父母的态度可能会影响孩子的性别认同。[49]

非常规性别与跨性别

性别认同可能导致不适合二元性别范畴的人士的安全问题。[50]在某些情况下,一个人的性别认同与其外显生物性别特征(生殖器和第二性征)不一致,导致个人穿着或行为的方式被他人视为违反内部的性别文化标准。这些性别表现可以被描述为非常规性别跨性别性别酷儿(也就是说明那些违抗传统性别身份的新兴词汇)。[51]并且有这种性别表达的人可能会遭遇到性别不安(传统上称为性别认同障碍或GID)。跨性别者在性别转换之前,之间和之后都受到语言和性别代词的极大影响。[52]

近几十年来,通过性别重置手术重新指定性别已成为可能。一些经历性别不安的人寻求这样的医疗干预,使他们的生理性别与他们的性别认同相匹配;其他人则保留他们出生时的生殖器,但采取与其性别认同一致的性别角色

参见

参考文献

  1. ^ Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression in Social Work Practice, edited by Deana F. Morrow and Lori Messinger (2006, ISBN 0231501862), page 8: "Gender identity refers to an individual's personal sense of identity as masculine or feminine, or some combination thereof."
  2. ^ Campaign, Human Rights. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Definitions - Human Rights Campaign. 
  3. ^ V. M. Moghadam, Patriarchy and the politics of gender in modernising societies, in International Sociology, 1992: "All societies have gender systems."
  4. ^ Carlson, Neil R.; Heth, C. Donald, Sensation, (编) Carlson, Neil R.; Heth, C. Donald, Psychology: the science of behaviour 4th, Toronto, Canada: Pearson: 140–141, 2009, ISBN 9780205645244. 
  5. ^ Jack David Eller, Culture and Diversity in the United States (2015, ISBN 1317575784), page 137: "most Western societies, including the United States, traditionally operate with a binary notion of sex/gender"
  6. ^ For example, "transvestites [who do not identify with the dress assigned to their sex] existed in almost all societies." (G. O. MacKenzie, Transgender Nation (1994, ISBN 0879725966), page 43.) — "There are records of males and females crossing over throughout history and in virtually every culture. It is simply a naturally occurring part of all societies." (Charles Zastrow, Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare: Empowering People (2013, ISBN 128554580X), page 234, quoting the North Alabama Gender Center.)
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Pamela J. Kalbfleisch; Michael J. Cody. Gender, power, and communication in human relationships. Psychology Press. 1995: 366 pages [June 3, 2011]. ISBN 0805814043. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Ann M. Gallagher; James C. Kaufman. Gender differences in mathematics: An integrative psychological approach. Cambridge University Press. 2005. ISBN 0-521-82605-5. 
  9. ^ Erratum. September 2013 Issue, vol. 101 (4), Suppl. 1, pages 1-22. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia. 2014, 102 (3). ISSN 0066-782X. doi:10.5935/abc.2013s010e. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 Boles, 2013. Pages 101-102.
  11. ^ A few authorities say it forms between ages 3-4 rather than precisely at age 3, e.g. George J. Bryjak and Michael P. Soraka, Sociology: Cultural Diversity in a Changing World (ed. Karen Hanson), Allyn & Bacon, 1997; 209-245
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Newmann, Barbara. Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach. Cengage Learning. 2012-12-20: 243. ISBN 9781111344665. 
  13. ^ Christopher Bates Doob, Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 14.2 J. A. Kleeman, The establishment of core gender identity in normal girls. I.(a) Introduction;(b) Development of the ego capacity to differentiate, in the Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1971: "Though gender identity formation continues into young adulthood and core gender identity establishment extends into the fourth year and possibly longer, core gender identity is fairly firmly formed by age 3[.]"
  15. ^ E. Coleman, Developmental stages of the coming out process, in Journal of homosexuality, 1982: "Core gender and sex-role identities are well-formed by the age of 3 (Money & Ehrhardt, 1972). This is believed because attempts to reassign gender identity after age 3 result in further gender dysphoria."
  16. ^ Stein MT, Zucker KJ, Dixon SD. December, 1997. "Gender Identity", The Nurse Practitioner. Vo. 22, No. 12, P. 104
  17. ^ Martin, C.; Ruble, D. Children's Search for Gender Cues Cognitive Perspectives on Gender Development. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2004, 13 (2): 67–70. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.00276.x. 
  18. ^ Newmann, Barbara. Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach. Cengage Learning. 2012-12-20: 243. ISBN 9781111344665. 
  19. ^ International technical guidance on sexuality education: An evidence-informed approach (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. 2018: 18. ISBN 978-92-3-100259-5. 
  20. ^ 20.0 20.1 Effects of male sex hormones on gender identity, sexual behavior, and cognitive function, Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao, Yi Xue Ban (Journal of Central South University, Medical Sciences), April 2006, 31(2):149-61
  21. ^ Money, John. The concept of gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence after 39 years. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy. 1994, 20 (3): 163–77. PMID 7996589. doi:10.1080/00926239408403428. 
  22. ^ Susan Golombok, Robyn Fivush, Gender Development (1994, ISBN 0521408628), page 44: "When assigned and raised as boys, these genetic girls adopt a male gender identity and role, showing that a Y chromosome is not necessary for gender development to proceed in a male direction."
  23. ^ Henslin, James M. Essentials of Sociology. Taylor & Francis. 2001: 65–67, 240. ISBN 0-536-94185-8. 
  24. ^ Factors Influencing Gender Identity. 
  25. ^ Williams, Michael, "Cultural Identity, Language Identity, Gender Identity", "The English Academy of South Africa", 2011
  26. ^ Myers, David G. (2008). Psychology. New York: Worth.
  27. ^ Martin, C. L.; Ruble, D. N.; Szkrybalo, J. Cognitive theories of early gender development. Psychological Bulletin. 2002, 128 (6): 903–906. PMID 12405137. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.6.903. 
  28. ^ Nolen-Hoeksema. Abnormal Psychology 6. McGraw-Hill. 2014: 386. ISBN 9781308211503. 
  29. ^ Martin, Carol; Diane Ruble; Joel Szkrybalo. Cognitive Theories of Early Gender Development. Psychological Bulletin. 2002, 128 (6): 903–913. PMID 12405137. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.6.903. 
  30. ^ Ghosh, Shuvo. Gender Identity. MedScape. [October 29, 2012]. 
  31. ^ Lynda Birke, In Pursuit Of Difference, scientific studies of women and men, in The Gender and Science Reader, page 310
  32. ^ Hines, Melissa. Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 2017-02-02, 32 (2): 170–182. ISSN 0091-3022. PMC 3296090. PMID 21333673. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2011.02.006. 
  33. ^ Lynda Birke suggests that during the early stage of fetal development, specific hormones will enter the brain and “permanently affect how the hypothalamus works. As before, high levels of hormones known as androgens will stop the hypothalamus from ever organizing hormone cycles. If there are low levels, then it will be cyclic.” This early influence on brain determines the different frequency of hormone secretion later in male or female’s life. “Obviously, women’s sex hormones usually follow a monthly cycle,” while “men’s sex hormones do not follow such a pattern.” Birke, Lynda. The Gender and Science Reader. : 313. 
  34. ^ Blackless, Melanie; Charuvastra, Anthony; Derryck, Amanda; Fausto-Sterling, Anne; Lauzanne, Karl; Lee, Ellen. How sexually dimorphic are we? Review and synthesis. American Journal of Human Biology. March 2000, 12 (2): 151–166. ISSN 1520-6300. PMID 11534012. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6300(200003/04)12:2<151::AID-AJHB1>3.0.CO;2-F. 
  35. ^ Free & Equal Campaign Fact Sheet: Intersex (PDF). United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2015 [28 March 2016]. 
  36. ^ Mieszczak, J; Houk, CP; Lee, PA. Assignment of the sex of rearing in the neonate with a disorder of sex development. Curr Opin Pediatr. Aug 2009, 21 (4): 541–7. PMC 4104182. PMID 19444113. doi:10.1097/mop.0b013e32832c6d2c. 
  37. ^ Council of Europe; Commissioner for Human Rights, Human rights and intersex people, Issue Paper, April 2015 
  38. ^ Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics NEK-CNE. On the management of differences of sex development. Ethical issues relating to "intersexuality".Opinion No. 20/2012 (PDF). 2012. Berne. November 2012 [2018-08-06]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2015-04-23). 
  39. ^ World Health Organization. Sexual health, human rights and the law. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2015. ISBN 9789241564984. 
  40. ^ Meyer-Bahlburg, HF. Gender identity outcome in female-raised 46,XY persons with penile agenesis, cloacal exstrophy of the bladder, or penile ablation.. Archives of Sexual Behavior. PMID 16010465. doi:10.1007/s10508-005-4342-9. 
  41. ^ Furtado P. S.; 等. Gender dysphoria associated with disorders of sex development. Nat. Rev. Urol. 2012, 9 (11): 620–627. PMID 23045263. doi:10.1038/nrurol.2012.182. 
  42. ^ New publication "Intersex: Stories and Statistics from Australia". Organisation Intersex International Australia. February 3, 2016 [2016-08-18]. 
  43. ^ Jones, Tiffany; Hart, Bonnie; Carpenter, Morgan; Ansara, Gavi; Leonard, William; Lucke, Jayne. Intersex: Stories and Statistics from Australia (PDF). Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers. 2016 [2 February 2016]. ISBN 978-1-78374-208-0. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于14 September 2016). 
  44. ^ J. Money, J. G. Hampson, and J. L. Hampson, An examination of some basic sexual concepts, 1955
  45. ^ 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 45.4 A. L. C. de Vries, et al., Gender Dysphoria and Disorders of Sex Development (2013, ISBN 1461474418)
  46. ^ Anne Fausto-Sterling, Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construct
  47. ^ D. F. Swaab, Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation, in Gynecological Endocrinology, 2004: "...direct effects of testosterone on the developing fetal brain are of major importance for the development of male gender identity and male heterosexual orientation. Solid evidence for the importance of postnatal social factors is lacking."
  48. ^ M. S. C. Wallien, Psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children (2008)
  49. ^ M Weinraub, LP Clemens, A Sockloff, T Ethridge, The development of sex role stereotypes in the third year: relationships to gender labeling, gender identity, sex-types toy preference, and family characteristics, in Child Development, 1984: "Previous investigators have failed to observe a relationship between parental attitudes and children's early sex role acquisition..."
  50. ^ Hoogensen, Gunhild; Rottem, Svein Vigeland. Gender Identity and the Subject of Security. Security Dialogue. 2016-06-29, 35 (2): 155–171. doi:10.1177/0967010604044974 (英语). 
  51. ^ Blackless, Melanie; Besser, M.; Carr, S.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Connolly, P.; De Sutter, P.; Diamond, M.; Di Ceglie, D.; Higashi, Y.; Jones, L.; Kruijver. F.P.M.; Martin, J.; Playdon, Z-J.; Ralph, D.; Reed, T.; Reid, R.; Reiner, W.G.; Swaab, D.; Terry, T.; Wilson, P.; Wylie, K. Atypical Gender Development – A Review. International Journal of Transgenderism. 2003, 9: 29–44 [2008-09-28]. doi:10.1300/J485v09n01_04. (原始内容存档于2008-10-07). 
  52. ^ Words Matter: Affirming Gender Identity Through Language. 18 May 2016. 
{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
性别认同
Listen to this article