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性悖轨

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一张十七世纪的通缉令,十名男性遭阿姆斯特丹当局以所多玛之罪的罪名通缉
一张十七世纪的通缉令,十名男性遭阿姆斯特丹当局以所多玛之罪的罪名通缉

性悖轨(英语:sodomy,所多玛)源自中世纪基督教神学中对非属自然法性行为的指称,一般是指男性与男性之间的肛交行为[1][2][3]。也可以指女性与女性之间的性行为,男性与女性之间的口交、肛交行为,或人类与动物之间的性行为[4]

广义来说,凡是人类非生殖性的性行为(non-coital sexual acts),包括自慰、互相手淫口交肛交避孕性行为等都包含在内[5][6]

至今还有一些国家将性悖轨行为定性为犯罪,但也有许多国家已经废除或不予执行这些法律[4][2]

语源

所多玛城招致耶和华的怒气(1781)
所多玛城招致耶和华的怒气(1781)

sodomy”一词来源于《创世记》中所多玛与蛾摩拉的故事[7]。 这个词是由彼得达米安英语Peter Damian在11世纪创造,用来取代《圣经》中的“sin of Sodom”, 彼得最初把手淫行为也包括在sodomy这个词的范围内[8]

“sin of Sodom”来自于《圣经》创世纪第18、19章中耶和华亚伯拉罕的故事。耶和华认为所多玛与蛾摩拉(Sodom and Gomorrah,是古代巴勒斯坦的城市)被道德败坏且罪恶深重的人群占据,所以,耶和华告诉亚伯拉罕他要毁掉这两个城市。亚伯拉罕替居住在两个城市的人求情,最后耶和华同意,如果能在城市里找到10个清白的人,他就宽恕整个城市。于是,耶和华派了两个天使去考察所多玛,他们受到所多玛最后一个清白的人、亚伯拉罕的小舅罗得的热情款待。可是在天使要睡觉的时候,所多玛的居民围住了罗得的房子,要求和罗得的“客人”发生性关系。

根据今日历史学家的考证,过去在新月沃土的居民有对敌军的俘虏进行强奸的行为,以表示自己把对方打败的意思。罗得为两位天使求情,并提议把两个仍然是处女的女儿任这些人淫辱,但被居民拒绝。于是天使们施法让这些人看不见,但居民摸着黑试图闯进屋里来。于是天使让罗得和他的家人离开了这座城市,然后毁了它。

现代神学家用不同的方式解释圣经,例如将其罪行归之于所多玛与蛾摩拉的居民对天使(客人)有强奸企图,以及丧失“待客之道”。不过彼得达米安英语Peter Damian认为是因为“男性间的性欲望”(中世纪的基督教神学认为性行为若不用于生育,包括口交、手淫等,不合乎耶和华对人类的性规定),致使耶和华毁掉了那两个城市[8]

性悖轨者

在16、17世纪的英国,有性悖轨(sodomy)行为的人被称为性悖轨者(sodomite)。性悖轨者这个词与现代意义上的同性恋homosexual)在语意上是不同的,因为性悖轨性行为不局限于同性恋者身上,更不限于男同性恋者

当西方社会在19世纪开始使用同性恋这一名词的时候,同性间的性行为被重新定义为不同个体之本质特点的正常反应。而且,人们一般认为,同性恋间的性行为带有稳定性和长久性。而性悖轨犯罪者,有点类似于杀人犯和纵火犯,同样被认为不道德,它是一种临时性的性罪行。

参见

参考资料

  1. ^ 美联邦最高法院研议性悖轨法是否违宪. sodomy,“性悖轨”一词是参考张志维1996年中外文学第289期中的译法。Sodomy一般指的是肛交,原意专指男性和男性之间的肛交,在古代是宗教上的处罚行为,sodomy law的出发点也是为了定罪于男同性恋,但制定法律需要一些说辞,因此从教会观点罗织某些性行为是悖离常轨、不自然(违反生殖原则)的...而且不只存在同性、也可能存在异性、夫妻之间 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Colin Sumner. The Blackwell Companion to Criminology. John Wiley & Sons. 2008: 310–320 [September 21, 2013]. ISBN 0470998954. 
  3. ^ Sullivan, Andrew. Unnatural Law. The New Republic. March 24, 2003 [November 27, 2009]. Since the laws had rarely been enforced against heterosexuals, there was no sense of urgency about their repeal.  (Or Sullivan, Andrew. Unnatural Law. The New Republic. 2003-03-24, 228 (11). )
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Nicholas C. Edsall. Toward Stonewall: Homosexuality and Society in the Modern Western World. University of Virginia Press. 2006: 3–4 [September 21, 2013]. ISBN 0813925436. 
  5. ^ Andrew Sullivan. Unnatural Law. The New Republic. 2003. It's worth noting, then, that from the very beginning sodomy and homosexuality were two categorically separate things. The correct definition of sodomy--then and now--is simply non-procreative sex, whether practiced by heterosexuals or homosexuals. It includes oral sex, masturbation, mutual masturbation, contraceptive sex, coitus interruptus, and anal sex--any sex in which semen does not find its way into a uterus. So it's perhaps unsurprising that Jordan's research doesn't discover the actual nouns "sodomy" and "sodomite" until the eleventh century. The first and most influential polemic against it was the hermit monk Peter Damian's Book of Gomorrah. Given the period's expansive definition of sodomy (it did, after all, include masturbation), it's not surprising that Damian believed it was rife. But his particular fixation--which has persisted in religious teachings ever since--is with same-sex male sodomy. 
  6. ^ Quibian Salazar-Moreno. Weird sex laws in the U.S.. Up until 1962, sodomy was considered a felony and, in some states, oral sex, adultery and masturbation fell under the sodomy laws. 
  7. ^ J. D. Douglas, Merrill C. Tenney. Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Zondervan. 2011: 1584 pages [September 21, 2013]. ISBN 0310492351. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Andrew Sullivan. Unnatural Law. The New Republic. 2003. It's worth noting, then, that from the very beginning sodomy and homosexuality were two categorically separate things. The correct definition of sodomy--then and now--is simply non-procreative sex, whether practiced by heterosexuals or homosexuals. It includes oral sex, masturbation, mutual masturbation, contraceptive sex, coitus interruptus, and anal sex--any sex in which semen does not find its way into a uterus. So it's perhaps unsurprising that Jordan's research doesn't discover the actual nouns "sodomy" and "sodomite" until the eleventh century. The first and most influential polemic against it was the hermit monk Peter Damian's Book of Gomorrah. Given the period's expansive definition of sodomy (it did, after all, include masturbation), it's not surprising that Damian believed it was rife. But his particular fixation--which has persisted in religious teachings ever since--is with same-sex male sodomy. 
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