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戗金

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戗金[1],又称沉金枪金,是一种在漆器上刻划出金色线条、细点的装饰技法,最早记载于陶宗仪的著作《辍耕录》,目前发现最古老的戗金漆器是1978年在江苏南宋古墓挖掘出的三件木胎戗金漆器[2],此技法在明朝时十分盛行,曾在元朝时传入室町时代的日本,日本称之为“沉金”,在日本相当风行,传承至今,是取让金色沉陷在刻纹的技巧命名。

用戗金技巧在漆器上描绘的松叶纹
用戗金技巧在漆器上描绘的松叶纹

戗金技巧做法是在推光漆或罩漆完成的漆器上用针或雕刀刻出线条或细点进行纹饰,在刻痕内填金漆,或再贴入金箔、黏敷金粉后轻拍,使金箔、金粉深入凹槽,令刻在漆器上的花纹呈现金色,表现出漆器纹路的立体感,具有快速流畅却又沈稳的美感。而中国日本在戗金技法上的主要差别在于中国的刻法多用针,而日本的刻法类似用毛笔写字有抑扬顿挫,用一把刀表面由粗刻到细;中国却是以粗细不同的针混合使用,所以日本与中国制作戗金时表现出的线条并不一样。[3]

戗金所用的材料金箔优于金粉,因为贴金箔能与漆面能成强烈对比,相较下黏敷金粉的色泽较淡,而且金箔又比金粉便宜,所以使用几率相对较高。戗金的技巧除了使用金当原料,银也是常被利用的材质。

戗金技巧被日本指定为重要无形文化财,目前被认定为技巧保持者的前史雄是在1999年取得认定,他也身兼石川县立轮岛漆艺技术研修所所长,专精于对沈金刀具的研究。

参见

参考文献

  1. ^ “戗”,国语音“qiàng”(“ㄑㄧㄤˋ”),粤语音“唱”。
  2. ^ [1]页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆),台湾大百科-戗金
  3. ^ [2][永久失效链接],三田村有纯先生演讲及研习活动记录

沈金 | 轮岛涂页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆

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戗金
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