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技术哲学

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技术哲学(英语:philosophy of technology)是哲学的一大分支,研究技术的本质和它的社会效益。

技术哲学可以追溯到西方哲学的开端,古希腊人关于技术(英语:technology古希腊语词根:techne)有过一些讨论。[1]“技术哲学”一词的使用则可以追溯到19世纪时德国出生的哲学家和地理学家Ernst Kapp英语Ernst Kapp,他的作品《技术哲学原理》(德语:Grundlinien einer Philosophie der Technik)。[2][3]

历史

古希腊哲学

西方术语“技术”一词来源于古希腊语中的“技艺英语techne”(τέχνη),其含义是知识的艺术或技巧。同样,当今对于技术的哲学观点,也都可以追溯到古希腊哲学,西方哲学的根源。

古希腊哲学中,对于技艺的观点是这样的:技艺来源于对自然的摹仿(例如,编织的技艺来源于观看蜘蛛)。古希腊哲学家赫拉克利特和德谟克里特支持这样的观点。[1] 亚里士多德在它的著作《物理学 (亚里士多德)》中也同意经常出现摹仿的情况,但是他认为,技艺可以超越自然,完成“自然不能达到的终点”。[4] 亚里士多德还论证,自然(physis)和技艺在本体论上可以区分,因为自然的东西其产生与运动都有内在的原则支配,也有目的论的最终原因。然而,技艺是由外部的原因以及外部的目的造成。[5]自然事物争取某些结果,从而繁衍生息;然而技艺却不会这样。在柏拉图的《蒂迈欧篇》中,世界被描述为是神圣造物主(巨匠造物主)的创造物,用永恒的样式制作,正如巧匠用蓝图制作事物一样。还有,柏拉图认为在法律篇中论证,工匠应当模仿巨匠造物主。

中世纪到19世纪

弗朗西斯·培根
弗朗西斯·培根

罗马帝国时代和古典时代后期(late antiquity),有很多著作诸如《维特鲁威》、《De Architectura英语De Architectura》(前1世纪)、阿格里科拉的《坤舆格致》(1556)等等。中世纪经院哲学普遍支持传统中对于技术的观念,认为是对自然的摹仿。文艺复兴时期,弗兰西斯·培根成为了社会上第一个反映技术影响力的作家。在他的乌托邦著作《新亚特兰蒂斯英语New Atlantis》(1627)中,培根阐述了他这样一个乐观的世界观,虚构了萨洛门的房子英语Salomon's House,用自然哲学和技术去扩展人对自然的能力(power),从而构建更好的社会,提高人的生活水平等等。

19世纪

德国哲学家和地理学家Ernst Kapp英语Ernst Kapp,在1877年发表了作品《科技哲学原理》(德语:Grundlinien einer Philosophie der Technik)。[3]Kapp深深地被黑格尔影响,认为技艺是人类感官的投射。在欧洲语境下,Kapp是技术哲学的奠基人。

另外,19世纪也有很多唯物主义立场,后来到20世纪时十分流行。

20世纪至今

20世纪杰出的技术哲学家,对当代技术产生了重要影响。举例来说,有约翰·杜威马丁·海德格尔赫伯特·马尔库塞君特·安德斯汉娜·阿伦特。他们都意识到,技术对于当代生活来说是核心的东西。但是海德格尔、安德斯[6]、阿伦特[7]和马尔库塞他们四人,相比杜威来说是喜忧参半和批判的。海德格尔的问题是科技的隐藏本质,他的主要作品可参见《关于技术的问题英语The Question Concerning Technology》。

当代对科技感兴趣的哲学家,还包括:尚·布希亚Albert Borgmann英语Albert BorgmannAndrew Feenberg英语Andrew FeenbergLangdon Winner英语Langdon Winner唐娜·哈拉维Avital Ronell英语Avital RonellBrian Holmes英语Brian HolmesDon Ihde英语Don Ihde布鲁诺·拉图尔Paul Levinson英语Paul LevinsonErnesto Mayz Vallenilla英语Ernesto Mayz VallenillaCarl Mitcham英语Carl MitchamLeo Marx英语Leo MarxGilbert Simondon英语Gilbert Simondon刘易斯·芒福德Jacques Ellul英语Jacques Ellul贝尔纳·斯蒂格勒保罗·维希留Günter Ropohl英语Günter RopohlNicole C. Karafyllis英语Nicole C. KarafyllisRichard Sennett英语Richard SennettÁlvaro Vieira Pinto,以及George Grant英语George Grant (philosopher)

Technology and neutrality

技术决定论 is the idea that "features of technology [determine] its use and the role of a progressive society was to adapt to [and benefit from] technological change."[8] The alternative perspective would be social determinism which looks upon society being at fault for the "development and deployment"[9] of technologies. Lelia Green英语Lelia Green used recent gun massacres such as the Port Arthur Massacre and the 邓伯兰完全中学校园大屠杀 to selectively show technological determinism and 社会决定论. According to Green, a technology can be thought of as a neutral entity only when the sociocultural context and issues circulating the specific technology are removed. It will be then visible to us that there lies a relationship of social groups and power provided through the possession of technologies.

参见

参考资料

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Franssen, Maarten; Lokhorst, Gert-Jan; van de Poel, Ibo; Zalta, Edward N., Ed. Philosophy of Technology. [[史丹佛哲学百科全书|]]. Spring 2010 [May 15, 2014]. 
  2. ^ Marquit, Erwin. Philosophy of Technology. 1995 [25 September 2015]. (原始内容存档于15 October 2015).  已忽略未知参数|url-status= (帮助) Section 2, paragraph 10. Published in vol. 13 of the Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (entry “Technology, Philosophy of”), pp. 417–29. VCH Publishers, Weinheim, Germany, 1995.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 * Ernst Kapp英语Ernst Kapp: Grundlinien einer Philosophie der Technik. Zur Entstehungsgeschichte der Cultur aus neuen Gesichtspunkten (Braunschweig/Brunswick 1877, Reprint Düsseldorf 1978, Engl. Translation Chicago 1978).
  4. ^ Aristotle, Physics II.8, 199a15
  5. ^ Aristotle, Physics II
  6. ^ # The Outdatedness of Human Beings 1. On the Soul in the Era of the Second Industrial Revolution. 1956 # The Outdatedness of Human Beings 2. On the Destruction of Life in the Era of the Third Industrial Revolution.
  7. ^ Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition, 1958.
  8. ^ Green, Lelia. Technoculture. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin. 2001: 2. 
  9. ^ Green, Lelia. Technoculture. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin. 2001: 3. 

推荐阅读

书籍
  • Vallor, Shannon. (2016). Technology and the Virtues. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0190498511
  • Joseph Agassi英语Joseph Agassi (1985) Technology: Philosophical and Social Aspects, Episteme, Dordrecht: Kluwer. ISBN 90-277-2044-4.
  • Hans Achterhuis英语Hans Achterhuis (2001) American Philosophy of Technology Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-33903-4
  • Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen and Evan Selinger (2006) Philosophy of Technology: 5 Questions. New York: Automatic Press / VIP英语Automatic Press / VIP. website
  • Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen, Stig Andur Pedersen and Vincent F. Hendricks (2009) A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology. Wiley-Blackwell. [1] ISBN 978-1-4051-4601-2
  • Borgmann, Albert英语Albert Borgmann (1984) Technology and the Character of Contemporary Life. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-06628-8
  • Drengson, A. (1995). The Practice of Technology: Exploring Technology, Ecophilosophy, and Spiritual Disciplines for Vital Links, State University of New York Press, ISBN 079142670X.
  • Dusek, V. (2006). Philosophy of Technology: An Introduction, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 1405111631.
  • Ellul, Jacques英语Jacques Ellul (1964), The Technological Society英语The Technological Society. Vintage Books.
  • Michael Eldred (2000) 'Capital and Technology: Marx and Heidegger', Left Curve No.24, May 2000 ISSN 0160-1857 (Ver. 3.0 2010). Original German edition Kapital und Technik: Marx und Heidegger, Roell Verlag, Dettelbach, 2000 117 pp. ISBN 3-89754-171-8.
  • Michael Eldred (2009) 'Critiquing Feenberg on Heidegger's Aristotle and the Question Concerning Technology'.
  • Feenberg, Andrew英语Andrew Feenberg (1999) Questioning Technology. Routledge Press. ISBN 978-0-415-19754-0
  • Ferre, F. (1995). Philosophy of Technology, University of Georgia Press, ISBN 0820317616.
  • Green, Lelia (2001) Technoculture: From Alphabet to Cybersex. Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest pp 1–2
  • Heidegger, Martin (1977) The Question Concerning Technology英语The Question Concerning Technology. Harper and Row.
  • Hickman, Larry (1992) John Dewey's Pragmatic Technology. Indiana University Press.
  • Eric Higgs英语Eric Higgs (philosopher), Andrew Light and David Strong. (2000). Technology and the Good Life. Chicago University Press.
  • Christoph Hubig, Alois Huning, Günter Ropohl英语Günter Ropohl (2000) Nachdenken über Technik. Die Klassiker der Technikphilosophie. Berlin: edition sigma. 2nd ed. 2001.
  • Huesemann, M.H., and J.A. Huesemann (2011).Technofix: Why Technology Won’t Save Us or the Environment, New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada, ISBN 0865717044, 464 pp.
  • Ihde, D. (1998). Philosophy of Technology, Paragon House, ISBN 1557782733.
  • Pitt, Joseph C.英语Joseph C. Pitt (2000). Thinking About Technology. Seven Bridges Press.
  • David M. Kaplan, ed. (2004) Readings in the Philosophy of Technology. Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Manuel de Landa英语Manuel de Landa War in the Age of Intelligent Machines英语War in the Age of Intelligent Machines. (1991). Zone Books. ISBN 978-0-942299-75-5.
  • Levinson, Paul英语Paul Levinson (1988) Mind at Large: Knowing in the Technological Age. JAI Press.
  • Lyotard, Jean-François (1984) The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge英语The Postmodern Condition. University of Minnesota Press.
  • 马素·麦克鲁汉.
  • Nechvatal, Joseph英语Joseph Nechvatal (2009) Towards an Immersive Intelligence: Essays on the Work of Art in the Age of Computer Technology and Virtual Reality (1993–2006). Edgewise Press.
  • Nechvatal, Joseph英语Joseph Nechvatal (2009) Immersive Ideals / Critical Distances. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing英语LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
  • Nye, David. (2006). Technology Matters. 麻省理工学院出版社. ISBN 978-0-262-64067-1
  • Marshall Poe英语Marshall Poe. (2011) A History of Communications. Cambridge University Press. New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-107-00435-1
  • Scharff, Robert C. and Val Dusek eds. (2003). Philosophy of Technology: The Technological Condition. An Anthology. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-631-22219-4
  • Seemann, Kurt. (2003). Basic Principles in Holistic Technology Education. Journal of Technology Education, V14.No.2.
  • Shaw, Jeffrey M. (2014). Illusions of Freedom: Thomas Merton and Jacques Ellul on Technology and the Human Condition. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock. ISBN 978-1625640581.
  • Simondon, Gilbert英语Gilbert Simondon.
    • Du mode d'existence des objets techniques. (1958). (法文)
    • L'individu et sa genèse physico-biologique (l'individuation à la lumière des notions de forme et d'information), (1964). Paris PUF英语PUF (法文)
  • 贝尔纳·斯蒂格勒, (1998). Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus英语Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus. Stanford University Press.
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技术哲学
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