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采购

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采购是商业组织为实现商业目标并试图在正确的时间以最低的价格,获得正确的数量和恰当质量的产品或服务的行为。最简单的采购如普通的购买行为,复杂的采购则包含了信息收集,寻找合作伙伴,商业谈判,签署合同等步骤。采购法律上是一种订立合约及执行合约责任的过程。在以物易物的社会已经有之,互通有无。

市场学原理中,采购决策未必非一人所为,尤其是购买贵重商品。当中有多个角色扮演,各有心态,互为影响,是消费者行为学研究的范畴:

  • 用家
  • 付款人
  • 采购人
  • 意见提供者

传统市场,街市有家庭主妇买,也要格价之后议价的现象。在企业采购方面,也有投标机制。

购买决策

在考虑了各种可能方案的优劣后,消费者或客户可依据评估的结果来做成购买决策,消费者购买行为可分为五个相关决策:

一、基本购买决策:决定是否要购买

二、产品类别购买决策:决定要买哪一种产品

三、品牌购买决策:决定所要购买的品牌

四、通路购买决策:决定在哪个管道购买

五、支付决策:决定用什么方式支付,支付条件、时间等

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采购
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