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横膈膜

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横膈膜
Respiratory system zh.svg
呼吸系统
基本信息
起点英语Anatomical terms of muscle#Insertion_and_originSeptum transversum, pleuroperitoneal folds, body wall[1]
动脉心包膈动脉、肌膈动脉、膈下动脉
静脉膈上静脉、膈下静脉
神经膈神经与下部肋间神经
相关动作英语Kinesiology呼吸
标识字符
拉丁文Diaphragma
希腊文διάφραγμα
MeSHD003964
TA98A04.4.02.001
TA22327
FMAFMA:13295
格雷氏p.404
肌肉解剖学术语英语Anatomical terms of muscle

哺乳动物解剖学中,横膈膜(英语:Thoracic diaphragm)是一层骨骼肌薄膜,延展及肋骨底部。横膈膜将胸腔腹腔相分隔,并对呼吸执行重要功能。解剖学中的膈膜(英语:Diaphragm)也可以指其他平坦的结构,例如泌尿生殖膈与骨盆膈,但普遍指横膈膜。其他脊椎动物,如两栖类爬虫类,也有横膈膜或类似横膈膜的构造,但腹腔内肺脏的位置等重大细节与人类相异。

功能

横膈膜的功能是帮助气体交换呼吸。吸入气体时,胸腔扩大(外肋间肌同时参与此扩张过程),降低胸内压力:换句话说,胸腔的扩大制造了吸力,将空气吸入内。横膈膜放松时,气体因肺的弹性回缩,以及胸腔内膜组织与腹肌的共同施力而被呼出,腹肌搭配横膈膜的收缩、负责类似撷抗肌(Antagonist)的功能。

横膈膜除了呼吸功能外,也透过提高腹部内压力,帮助排出人体内呕吐物、粪便尿液。横膈膜也在胃酸通过食管裂孔时,透过施压于食管,防止胃酸逆流。

对人类以外的某些动物而言,横膈膜不是完全至关重要的;举例而言,牛在横膈膜丧失功能的情况下仍可安然无恙的生存,只要避免对氧气代谢需求过大。

解剖学

横膈膜是一层骨骼肌纤维所构成的圆拱形隔膜,将胸腔与腹腔分隔开,具有三裂孔:主动脉裂孔(主动脉和胸导管通过)、食管裂孔(食管和迷走神经通过)、腔静脉裂孔(下腔静脉通过)。

参见

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本条目包含来自属于公共领域版本的《格雷氏解剖学》之内容,而其中有些信息可能已经过时。

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横膈膜
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