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氮氧化物

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氮氧化物(NOx)指的是只由两种元素组成的化合物。常见的氮氧化物:[1][2]

其中除五氧化二氮常态下呈固体外,其他氮氧化物常态下都呈气态。作为空气污染物的氮氧化物(NOx)常指NO和NO2

化学性质

氮氧化物都为非可燃物,不过都可以助燃。因此一氧化二氮二氧化氮五氧化二氮等遇高温或可燃性物质能引起爆炸。氮氧化物中有许多是酸酐,遇水可生成硝酸亚硝酸等酸类。

此外许多氮氧化物有毒,且多为神经毒气。纯的一氧化二氮无毒性。有神经毒性的系不纯的一氧化二氮含有其他的氮氧化物,如二氧化氮:对人体神经危害,会破坏人体之中枢神经,长期吸入会引起脑性麻痹,手脚萎缩等危害。大量吸入时会引起中枢神经麻痹,记忆丧失,四肢瘫痪,甚至死亡等病变。一氧化氮尚可与血红蛋白结合引起高铁血红蛋白血症

参考文献

  1. ^ United States Clean Air Act, 美国法典第42卷英语Title 42 of the United States Code第7602章
  2. ^ Seinfeld, John H.; Pandis, Spyros N., Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, Wiley-Interscience, 1997, ISBN 0-471-17816-0 
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氮氧化物
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