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火空海

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火空海”(藏文མེ་ཁ་རྒྱ་མཚོ་威利me kha rgya mtso),一种藏历纪年法,部分藏语文献中对从公元624年至1026年的403年间所使用的纪年方法[1]

藏语中“火”(མེ་)是“三”的异名,“空”(མཁའ་,虚空、空白)是“零”的异名,而“海”(རྒྱ་མཚོ་,音译为“加措”)是“四”的异名。藏文数字异名书写习惯为先写低位,故“火空海”即“403”之意。

与公元纪年的换算

藏历绕迥纪年始于公元1027年,即时轮经传入西藏的年代,之前的403年使用火空海纪年。与公元纪年的换算为:

  • 火空海纪年+623=公元纪年
  • 公元纪年-623=火空海纪年

起源

“火空海”纪年与伊斯兰教的兴起似乎存在着某种对应关系。伊斯兰教的纪年希吉拉历始于公元622年。在“火空海”纪年的403年间(624—1027年),正是伊斯兰教对中亚、印度实施征服的时期。《土观宗派源流》中说,异端教主“名为具甘者或名蜜慧者,造著外道的历法,传播回教”,  有学者认为此处“蜜慧”乃指“穆罕默德”而言,如果是这样,则“外道的历法”可能就是指伊斯兰教的希吉拉历。[2]

相关条目

  • 时轮历

参考

  1. ^ 藏历漫谈 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2015-04-02.
  2. ^ 周传斌. 世界屋脊上的伊斯兰文化. 西北民族研究. (原始内容存档于2016-03-04). 
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火空海
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