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电离

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电中性原子的电离能
电中性原子的电离能

电离(英语:Ionization),或称游离电离作用离子化,是指在(物理性的)能量作用下,原子分子水溶液中或熔融状态下产生自由离子的过程。

电离大致可细分为两种类型:一种连续电离(sequential ionization)和非连续电离(nonsequential ionization)。在经典物理学中,只有连续电离可以发生。非连续电离则违反了若干物理定律,属于量子电离。

例如:

  • 在水溶液中,由于水分子的作用,HCl全部离解成H+和Cl,因此被定义为强酸
  • 在水溶液中,由于水分子的作用,CH3COOH部分离解成H+和CH3COO,因此被定义为弱酸
  • 在光照或高能射线辐射下,气态原子、分子失去电子变成离子

经典电离

只适用于经典物理和玻尔模型,使原子和分子电离完全确定性,即每一个问题,始终有一个明确的和可计算的答案。

电离理论的提出

电离理论是1884年时由瑞典化学家S.A.阿伦尼乌斯提出的,因此也称为阿伦尼乌斯电离理论,又称为酸碱电离论。阿伦尼乌斯提出电解质会在溶液中自动的离解成正、负离子的理论。

参阅

物质的相变
basic
转变为
固态 液态 气态 等离子态
固态 熔化 升华
液态 凝固 汽化
气态 凝华 液化 电离
等离子态 等离子体重组


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电离
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