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发射窗口

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发射窗口航太领域的用语,指发射载具(火箭航天飞机等)最适合发射的一段时间。如果未能在此“窗口”发射,则必须等待下一次的发射窗口。[1]

如果只要进入任意环绕地球的轨道,几乎任何时间皆可;但假如要和太空站(如国际太空站)、或其他已在轨道中绕行的飞行载具会合,则发射时间必须控制在当目标物的轨道平面通过发射地点的时候,如此发射物便能在同一个轨道平面中飞行,使会合较容易。

如果发射物的目的地高于低地轨道,运用中继轨道(parking orbit)会使发射时间较具弹性,因为停留在中继轨道的时间与轨道倾角并非固定而是可随情况改变。参见[1]页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆)关于火星全球勘测者的发射窗口。

如果要抵达其他行星,使用简单、低能量的霍曼转移轨道的话,两次发射窗口的间隔便是两行星的会合周期(不考虑行星的轨道离心率)。以火星为例,与地球的会合周期是2.135,或780。更复杂的情况,如使用重力助推的话,发射窗口便不规则。例如航海家2号利用175年一次的行星连线来探访木星、土星、天王星和海王星。如果错过此类机会,则可能会变更探访目标。如ESA罗塞塔号原本目标是46P/Wirtanen彗星,却因发射问题延迟而改为67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko彗星。

参考文献

  1. ^ What is a launch window?. [2010-07-15]. (原始内容存档于2015-05-29). 

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发射窗口
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