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目标设定理论

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目标设定理论(英语:Goal-setting Theory)是一个由美国马里兰大学管理学心理学教授爱德温·洛克(Edwin A. Locke)提出的动机理论。研究发现,外来的刺激,例如奖励、工作反馈、监督压力等,都是通过目标来影响动机的。目标设定理论认为,工作目标的设定会直接影响到工作表现,目标本身就具有激励作用,能把个人的需要转变为动机,使人的行为向特定方向努力,并将自己的行为结果与既定的目标相对照,及时进行调整和修正,从而能实现目标。一个明确、具有挑战性的目标,配合合适的反馈,可以令个人的工作表现获得更大的提升。

目标设定理论的相关研究指出,设定的目标具有以下特性时,会有较好的激励效果。

  1. 目标定义明确(specific):目标的定义包括衡量目标是否达成的标准,完成的时间等。
  2. 目标挑战性适当(challenging):设定的目标具有一定挑战性,但其难度又不超过个人的承受范围,这样的目标可以产生激发潜力的效果,反之,太简单的任务容易让人觉得无聊,太难的工作则让人有挫折感。
  3. 回馈:人们不仅应有目标,更应定期地得到有关这些目标的达成状况。

参看

参考书目

  • Locke, Edwin A. (1968) “Toward a Theory of Task Motivation and Incentives” Organizational behavior and human performance, (3)2: 157-189.
  • Locke, Edwin A. (1996) “Motivation Through Conscious Goal Setting,” Applied and Preventive Psychology, 5:117-124.
  • Locke, Edwin A. (2001) “Motivation by Goal Setting,” Handbook of Organizational Behavior, 2: 43-54.
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目标设定理论
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