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磺酸

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磺酸(sulfonic acid,sulphonic acid)是含有磺酸基-SO2OH(-S(=O)(=O)-OH)的一类有机化合物。一般它们的酸性比相应羧酸强,可与蛋白质碳水化合物紧密结合。在很多反应中用作催化剂和反应中间体。

磺酸基与氢相连形成的H-SO2-OH很不稳定,很快经互变异构转变为亚硫酸HO-S(=O)-OH。

清洁剂、抗细菌药物(磺胺)、阴离子交换树脂和染料大多含有磺酸或磺酸盐结构。

常见的有机磺酸包括:

磺酰氯

磺酰氯是由磺酸衍生出的酰氯,通式R-SO2-Cl。它们与亲核试剂反应,生成磺酸酯和磺酰胺。常见的磺酰氯包括对甲苯磺酰氯、对溴苯磺酰氯、对硝基苯磺酰氯和甲磺酰氯。磺酰氯易水解。

Reed反应是合成磺酰氯的常用方法。 RH + Cl2 + SO2 → RSO2Cl + HCl (ɦʋ)

磺酸酯

三氟甲磺酸甲酯
三氟甲磺酸甲酯

磺酸酯是由磺酸衍生出的,通式R-SO2-OR。三氟甲磺酸根离子是脂肪族亲核取代反应中很好的离去基团三氟甲磺酸甲酯则是常用的甲基化试剂。

参见

  • 硫酸
  • 硫𬭩 S+, S+R3
  • 愈创木酚磺酸盐(Guaiacolsulfonate;愈酚待因、瓜亚科尔磺酸盐)

参考资料

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磺酸
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