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神秘主义

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神秘主义(英语:Mysticism),也有较模糊的称为密契主义,包涵人类神明或某种超自然力量结合为一的各种形式、经验、体验,并且强调这是一切宗教共有的现象。神秘主义者的基本信条是世界上存在超自然的力量或隐藏的自然力量,这种力量可以通过特殊教育或者宗教仪式获得。神秘主义的两大特征:

  • 形而上力量或日常生活不可遇的神奇事件,是存在的。
  • 这种力量或事件可透过某种人为方式让人亲身体验。

宗教神秘主义

神秘主义可划分为两大类型,一是“有神论的神秘主义”,指人与的合一,另一类是“一元论的神秘主义”,指“与一普遍之理契合”。神秘主义的不同形式可见于所有主要宗教,亦可见于世俗经验。[1]

世界各宗教神秘主义
主宗教 派别 基本概念 资料来源
佛教 东密藏密禅宗 达至涅盘悟道:与究竟实相连结 [2][3]
基督教 公教灵修英语Catholic spirituality静修贵格会马丁主义诺斯底主义玫瑰十字会基督教神秘主义密传基督教 看见异象神的爱英语Love of God、与神为一(成神论 [4][5][6]
共济会 - 启迪(Enlightenment) [7]
印度教 吠檀多瑜伽宗教虔诚英语Bhakti克什米尔希瓦宗英语Kashmir Shaivism 脱离业力、无分别境界(Kaivalya)、体验终极实相(禅定)、先验知识(霎哈嘉及自性 [8]
伊斯兰教 苏菲派伊尔凡英语Irfan(知道,意识到) 先验知识、与神为一(Fana (Sufism)) [9]
耆那教 解脱 脱离业力 [10]
犹太教 卡巴拉哈西迪 脱离自我(Ein Sof) [11]
玫瑰十字会 - - [12]
锡克教 - 脱离业力 [13][14]
道教 天师道上清派灵宝派 [15]
儒教 经学宋明理学 天人合一优入圣域

参考文献

  1. ^ 艺术与建筑索引典—神秘主义 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2011-11-06.于2011年3月14日查阅
  2. ^ D.T. Suzuki. Mysticism: Christian and Buddhist. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 978-0415285865
  3. ^ Shunryu Suzuki. Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind. Shambhala. New edition 2011.
  4. ^ Louth, Andrew., The Origins of the Christian Mystical Tradition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-929140-3.
  5. ^ King, Ursula. Christian Mystics: Their Lives and Legacies Throughout the Ages. London: Routledge 2004.
  6. ^ Fanning, Steven., Mystics of the Christian Tradition. New York: Routledge Press, 2001.
  7. ^ Michael R. Poll. Masonic Enlightenment - The Philosophy, History And Wisdom Of Freemasonry. Michael Poll Publishing, 2006.
  8. ^ S. N. Dasgupta. Hindu Mysticism. BiblioBazaar, 2009. ISBN 978-0-559-06989-5
  9. ^ Reynold A. Nicholson. Studies in Islamic Mysticism. Routledge. New edition 2001. ISBN 978-0-7007-0278-7
  10. ^ T.K. Tukol. Yoga, Meditation & Mysticism in Jainism (Shri Raj Krishen Jain memorial lectures). Shri Raj Krishen Jain Charitable Trust, 1978.
  11. ^ Elior, Rachel, Jewish Mysticism: The Infinite Expression of Freedom, Oxford. Portland, Oregon: The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, 2007.
  12. ^ A.E. Waite. Rosicrucian Rites and Ceremonies of the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross by Founder of the Holy Order of the Golden Dawn. Ishtar, 2008. ISBN 978-0-9783883-4-8
  13. ^ Mohan Singh Uberoi. Sikh Mysticism. 1964.
  14. ^ Krishna Chattopadhyay. The world of mystics: A comparative study of Baul, Sufi and Sikh mysticism. R.K. Prakashan, 1993.
  15. ^ Harold D Roth. Original Tao: Inward Training (Nei-yeh) and the Foundations of Taoist Mysticism. Columbia University Press. New Edition, 2004. ISBN 978-0-231-11565-0

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神秘主义
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