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肺部呼吸上皮(respiratory epithelium)表面纤毛的扫描电镜照片。
肺部呼吸上皮(respiratory epithelium)表面纤毛扫描电镜照片。

纤毛(拉丁语:cilium,复数为cilia)是真核生物细胞细胞器,是一种尾状的突出物,伸向细胞外大约5到10微米。支撑纤毛的亚显微结构是微管,微管连接在基体之上。[1] 动物细胞利用纤毛拨动附近或移动自身,分布在呼吸系统输卵管,像是气管壁上的上皮细胞就具有纤毛,可以排除肺部尘埃。[2]


纤毛可分为两种型态,一种称为运动纤毛(motile cilia),能够长久地向同一方向运动。另一种则是非运动纤毛(non-motile ciliaPrimary ciliaImmotile cilia),一般用作感应细胞器。[1] 纤毛与鞭毛合称为波动足(undulipodia)。 纤毛会朝着向外的方向摆动,使异物随着纤毛的摆动而排出。



  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 陈子琏; 曾园山,张惠君. 人体结构学. 北京: 科学出版社. 2001. ISBN 7-03-009004-7. 
  2. ^ 大卫·伯尼. 《新世紀生物學習百科》高基氏體-包果和運送細胞製成物的系統. 猫头鹰. 1995年6月30日: P.19 [2013年8月10日]. ISBN 9578686412. (原始内容存档于2005年11月23日) (中文(台湾)). 


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