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组织学

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组织学(英语:Histology),或称显微解剖学Microscopic anatomyMicroanatomy),是一门对生物组织的微观研究,研究它们的形成、构造和功能。组织是指生物体中相同或相似的细胞集合以执行特定功能的细胞群。动物体基本上是由上皮组织结缔组织肌肉组织神经组织所构成。与组织学相关的生物学门包括了细胞生物学与解剖学等,细胞的层级是在组织之下;解剖学研究的对象是器官,其层级位于组织之上;形态学则是对整个生物体的研究。

通常组织学的研究对象只有动物的组织。在组织学的研究中,显微镜是非常重要的一项研究工具。组织学的艺术包含了依有兴趣的部位挑选适当的染剂,很多现行的染剂都是利用抗体的化学性质,来标定有兴趣的目标。1906年,诺贝尔生理医学奖授予意大利组织学家C.Golgi和西班牙组织学家R.Cajal,因为他们发明了镀银染色法和开创性研究了神经系统组织结构。[1]

植物的组织学研究

研究组织里细胞层级的构造、组成、始源等议题,常仍包含在植物解剖学的领域之中,但histological仍普遍被当作一般描述辞使用,意指对组织及细胞的研究及其方法。

参考文献

  1. ^ 组织学与胚胎学. 人民卫生出版社. 2013: 2. ISBN 9787117170147. 

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组织学
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