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罗马尼亚历

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罗马尼亚自1919年起启用公历[1]但传统的罗马尼亚历法也有自己的月份名称。在现代的罗马尼亚摩尔多瓦,公历在大众生活中具有主导地位。尽管如此,传统月份名称仍然在某些情况下使用,如罗马尼亚正教会制作的教会日历上。[2]

历史

1919年4月14日,罗马尼亚王国启用公历,当天是旧历法的4月1日。2019年,罗马尼亚国家银行为庆祝罗马尼亚采用公历一百周年,发行了10列伊银币纪念币。[1]

传统月份名称

所有月份的传统名称都源自拉丁语,这表明它们的使用早于8世纪左右的斯拉夫接触。在前十一个月份中,有六个的名称来源于月份的特征,五个的名称源自现在在公历(以及更早的儒略历)中使用的拉丁语名称,且每个月都有民间词源及额外含义。时处年末的十二月则得名于圣安德鲁

月份 通行名称 传统名称 传统名称词源
一月 ianuarie gerar 派生自拉丁语 januarius “一月”;民间词源将其与 ger “苦寒”联系;一月为深冬时节 [3]
二月 februarie făurar 派生自拉丁语 februarius “二月”;民间词源将其与 a făuri “创造”及 făurar “铁匠”联系;二月为春天的事物创造或塑造形象 [4]
三月 martie mărțișor 派生自拉丁语 martius “三月”,并加上了小称后缀 -ișor,意即“小的三月” [5]
四月 aprilie prier 派生自拉丁语 aprilis “四月”;民间词源将其与 a prii (有好兆头)联系;四月适合继续三月开始的农活 [6]
五月 mai florar 来自 floare “花”;五月植被茂盛;比较法兰西共和历花月floréal [7]
六月 iunie cireșar 来自 cireș “樱桃树”;六月是樱桃成熟之时 [8]
七月 iulie cuptor 来自 cuptor “烤箱”;七月通常是最热的月份,也是小麦准备收割之时 [9]
八月 august gustar 派生自拉丁语 augustus “八月”;民间词源将其与 a gusta “品尝”联系;八月开始准备采摘水果 [10]
九月 septembrie răpciune 词源存疑,可能派生自拉丁语 raptiō “带走” [11]
十月 octombrie brumărel 来自 brumă “白霜”,并加上了小称后缀 -el,意即“小白霜”;十月时白霜刚刚出现 [12]
十一月 noiembrie brumar 来自 brumă “白霜”;十一月时白霜越来越多;比较法兰西共和历雾月brumaire [13]
十二月 decembrie undrea 来自Îndrea(< 拉丁语 Andreas “安德烈”);圣安德鲁日(11月30日)之后,迎来本月 [14]

另外,九月还有一个传统名称,即vinicer。其可能来自斯拉夫语中的“葡萄园”一词[15]

另见

参考资料

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Michael Alexander. Romania: Centenary anniversary of adopting the Gregorian calendar depicted on new silver coins. Coin Update (Whitman Publishing). 2019-04-03 [2022-08-01] (英语). 
  2. ^ CALENDARUL SOLIA 2015 (PDF). Grass Lake: Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America. 2015 [2022-08-01] (罗马尼亚语及英语). 
  3. ^ gerar. dexonline. [2022-08-01] (罗马尼亚语). 
  4. ^ făurar. dexonline. [2022-08-01] (罗马尼亚语). 
  5. ^ mărțișor. dexonline. [2022-08-01] (罗马尼亚语). 
  6. ^ prier. dexonline. [2022-08-01] (罗马尼亚语). 
  7. ^ florar. dexonline. [2022-08-01] (罗马尼亚语). 
  8. ^ cireșar. dexonline. [2022-08-01] (罗马尼亚语). 
  9. ^ cuptor. dexonline. [2022-08-01] (罗马尼亚语). 
  10. ^ gustar. dexonline. [2022-08-01] (罗马尼亚语). 
  11. ^ răpciune. dexonline. [2022-08-01] (罗马尼亚语). 
  12. ^ brumărel. dexonline. [2022-08-01] (罗马尼亚语). 
  13. ^ brumar. dexonline. [2022-08-01] (罗马尼亚语). 
  14. ^ undrea. dexonline. [2022-08-01] (罗马尼亚语). 
  15. ^ vinicer. dexonline. [2022-08-01] (罗马尼亚语). 
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罗马尼亚历
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