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藩侯

维基百科,自由的百科全书

藩侯(德语:Markgraf),另译边境伯边境伯爵,是神圣罗马帝国爵位的一种。藩侯的历史可追溯到查理曼时期。查理曼曾将一些边境的重要地区设立“马克”(边区,德语:Mark),并委任藩侯进行统治[1][2]

藩侯的德语词“Markgraf”字面意思是“边区的伯爵”,职责是管理边区、保卫神圣罗马帝国的边境。不过后来一些领地并不位于边境地区的封建领主也获得藩侯爵位,例如1112年获封巴登藩侯赫尔曼二世英语Herman II, Margrave of Baden领地就并不在神圣罗马帝国的边境地区[3][4]

勃兰登堡的阿尔布雷希特一世1157年获封神圣罗马帝国藩侯。他开创的勃兰登堡藩侯国普鲁士王国的前身。

参考资料

  1. ^ 增泉·?. 西洋中古史. 五南图书出版股份有限公司. 2001: 226 [2019-05-20]. ISBN 978-957-11-2617-3. (原始内容存档于2021-04-07). 
  2. ^ 中国大百科全书. 中国大百科全书出版社. : 166 [2019-05-20]. (原始内容存档于2022-05-08). 
  3. ^
     Chisholm, Hugh (编). Margrave. 大英百科全书 17 (11th ed.). 剑桥大学出版社: 705. 1911. 
  4. ^ Pine, L.G. Titles: How the King Became His Majesty. New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc. 1992: 68–69. ISBN 1-56619-085-1. 
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藩侯
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