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行宫伯爵

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行宫伯爵拉丁语comes palatinus;英语:Count palatine),另译普法尔茨伯爵(德语:Pfalzgraf)、王权伯爵[1],是一种起源于罗马帝国后期、在中世纪以后主要由神圣罗马帝国等国家使用的贵族头衔。行宫伯爵头衔中的palatinus一词源于拉丁语词palatium,意为行宫。行宫伯爵是王权的直接代理人,在领地内可以行使完整王权,对领地事务有较高处置权[2][3][4]

历史

神圣罗马帝国的普法尔茨纹章
神圣罗马帝国的普法尔茨纹章

罗马帝国后期,部分皇帝身边的近臣会被封为palatini,一般认为这是行宫伯爵头衔的起源。君士坦丁大帝后,palatini也用来指首都与首都周边的驻军,以区分其他地区的驻军。拜占庭帝国一些主管帝国领地事务或财政的官员也会被封为palatini。在罗马帝国崩溃后,法兰克王国开始将部分高级官员册封一种名为palatinus的新头衔,代替国王处理部分事务。后来,palatinus逐步发展为拥有超过一般伯爵权力的行宫伯爵(comes palatinus)。行宫伯爵在领内可视为国王本人,能行使完整的王权,同时拥有最高司法权力[4][5]

使用

神圣罗马帝国的行宫伯爵是一种拥有较大自主权的诸侯,对领地拥有较大处置权。历史上神圣罗马帝国曾册封过巴伐利亚行宫伯爵、勃艮第行宫伯爵、罗泰凌吉亚行宫伯爵、莱茵行宫伯爵、图宾根行宫伯爵,以及萨克森行宫伯爵。神圣罗马帝国行宫伯爵的领地又称为“普法尔茨”。莱茵行宫伯爵曾是神圣罗马帝国的选帝侯[3][5][6][7]

除神圣罗马帝国外,英格兰苏格兰匈牙利,以及波兰等国也使用过行宫伯爵头衔[4]

参见

参考文献

  1. ^ 王亚平. 修道院的变迁. 东方出版社. 1998: 66. 
  2. ^ "palatine, adj.1 and n.1". Oxford University Press. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1
     本条目部分或全部内容出自公有领域Holland, Arthur William. Palatine. Chisholm, Hugh (编). 大英百科全书 20 (11th ed.). 剑桥大学出版社: 595–596. 1911. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Sir John Comyns. A Digest of the Laws of England. L .White. 1793: 246. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 雅各.布克哈特(Jacob Burckhardt). 義大利文藝復興時代的文化: Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien: Ein Versuch. 联经出版事业公司. 2007-02-06: 25–26. ISBN 978-957-08-3093-4. 
  6. ^ Jodie Scales. Of Kindred Germanic Origins: Myths, Legends, Genealogy and History of an Ordinary American Family. iUniverse. 2001-11-30: 46. ISBN 978-0-595-20583-7. 
  7. ^ Marcus Roelke; Beverly Roelke. Origins of the family Roelke of Dane County, Wisconsin: a supplement to the Family Roelke of Dane County, Wisconsin : a genealogical history and register, 1850-1983. M. Roelke. 2005: 324 [2019-09-14]. (原始内容存档于2022-07-11). 
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行宫伯爵
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