# 诺贝尔物理学奖得主列表

## 20世纪获奖者

### 1901年－1910年

1901年

"[for] the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"[8]

1902年

"[for] their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"[9]

1903年

"[for] his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"[10]

"[for] their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"[10]

1904年

"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"[11]
1905年

"for his work on cathode rays"[12]
1906年

"[for] his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"[13]
1907年

"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"[14]
1908年

"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[15]
1909年

"[for] their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"[16]

1910年

"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"[17]

### 1911年－1920年

1911年

"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"[18]
1912年

"for his invention of automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses and buoys"[19]
1913年

"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"[20]
1914年

"For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"[21]
1915年

"For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"[22]

1916年 未颁奖
1917年

"For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"[23]
1918年

"[for] the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"[24]
1919年

"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"[25]
1920年

"[for] the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"[26]

### 1921年－1930年

1921年

瑞士
“他对理论物理学的成就，特别是光电效应定律的发现”
"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"[27]
1922年

"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"[28]
1923年

"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"[29]
1924年

"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"[30]
1925年

"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[31]

1926年

"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"[32]
1927年

"for his discovery of the effect named after him"[33]

"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"[33]
1928年

"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"[34]
1929年

"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"[35]
1930年

"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"[36]

### 1931年－1940年

1931年 未颁奖
1932年

"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"[37]
1933年

"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"[38]

1934年 未颁奖
1935年

"for the discovery of the neutron"[39]
1936年

"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"[40]

"for his discovery of the positron"[40]
1937年

"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"[41]

1938年

"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"[42]
1939年

"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"[43]
1940年 未颁奖

### 1941年－1950年

1941年 未颁奖
1942年
1943年

"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"[44]
1944年

"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[45]
1945年

"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[46]
1946年

"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics"[47]
1947年

"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"[48]
1948年

"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"[49]
1949年

"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"[50]
1950年

"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"[51]

### 1951年－1960年

1951年

"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"[52]

1952年

"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[53]

1953年

"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"[54]
1954年

西德
“在量子力学领域的基础研究，特别是他对波函数的统计诠释”
"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[55]

"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"[55]
1955年

"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"[56]

"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"[56]
1956年

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"[57]

1957年

美国
“他们对所谓的宇称不守恒定律的敏锐地研究，该定律导致了有关基本粒子的许多重大发现”
"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"[58]

美国
1958年

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[59]

1959年

"for their discovery of the antiproton"[60]

1960年

"for the invention of the bubble chamber"[61]

### 1961年－1970年

1961年

"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[62]

"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"[62]
1962年

"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"[63]
1963年

"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[64]

"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"[64]

1964年

1965年

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[66]

1966年

"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"[67]
1967年

"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"[68]
1968年

"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"[69]
1969年

"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[70]
1970年

"for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"[71]

"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"[71]

### 1971年－1980年

1971年

"for his invention and development of the holographic method"[72]
1972年

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"[73]

1973年

"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"[74]

"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[74]
1974年 马丁·赖尔  英国 “他们在射电天体物理学的开创性研究：赖尔的发明和观测，特别是合成孔径技术；休伊什在发现脉冲星方面的关键性角色”
"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"[75]

1975年

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[76]

1976年

"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[77]

1977年

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"[78]

1978年

"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"[79]

"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"[79]

1979年

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[80]

1980年

"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"[81]

### 1981年－1990年

1981年

"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"[82]

"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"[82]

1982年 肯尼斯·威尔逊  美国 “对与相转变有关的临界现象理论的贡献”
"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"[83]
1983年

"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"[84]

"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"[84]
1984年

"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"[85]

1985年

"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"[86]
1986年 恩斯特·鲁斯卡  西德 “电子光学的基础工作和设计了第一台电子显微镜
"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"[87]

"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"[87]

1987年

"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"[88]

1988年

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[89]

1989年

"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"[90]

"for the development of the ion trap technique"[90]

1990年

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[91]

### 1991年－2000年

1991年

"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"[92]
1992年

"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[93]
1993年

"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"[94]

1994年

"for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[95]

"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[95]
1995年

"for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[96]

"for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[96]
1996年

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[97]

1997年

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"[98]

1998年

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"[99]

1999年

"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"[100]

2000年

"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[101]

"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"[101]

## 21世纪获奖者

### 2001年－2010年

2001年

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"[102]

2002年

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"[103]

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"[103]
2003年

俄罗斯
“对超导体超流体理论做出的先驱性贡献”
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"[104]

美国
2004年

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"[105]

2005年

"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[106]

"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"[106]

2006年

"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"[107]

2007年

"for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"[108]

2008年

"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"[109]

"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"[109]
2009年

英国
美国[110]
“在光传输于纤维的光学通信领域突破性成就”
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"[111]

"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor"[111]

2010年

英国
“在二维石墨烯材料的开创性实验”
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"[112]

俄罗斯

### 2011年至今

2011年

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"[113]

澳大利亚

2012年

"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring & manipulation of individual quantum systems"[114]

2013年

"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"[115]

2014年

"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"[116]

2015年

"for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass"[117]

2016年

美国
“在物质的拓扑相变和拓扑相领域的理论性发现”
"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"[118]

美国

美国
2017年

"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves"[119]

2018年

"for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics"[120]

2019

美国
“在物理宇宙学的理论发现”
"for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology"[121]

"for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star"[121]

## 注释

• ^ A. 这里的中文姓名是根据诺贝尔基金会的官方主页提供的英文名字翻译，对于得奖者的其他名字，可从该得奖者的条目中了解。华人或日本人姓名按中文和日文姓名习惯翻译。
• ^ B. 这里的国家信息是根据诺贝尔基金会的官方主页提供的信息列出，并不一定为得奖者现在的国籍或出生地。
• ^ C. 这里所引用的获奖理由是根据诺贝尔基金会的官方主页提供的英文原文翻译列出，英文原文被列于中文翻译之后以供查对。括号中内容为编者所加，并非原文所有。

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39. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-15）.
40. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-09-16）.
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48. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-15）.
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50. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-21）.
51. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-05）.
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56. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-12-01）.
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64. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-22）.
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70. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-11-04）.
71. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-09-19）.
72. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-11-05）.
73. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-09-19）.
74. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2011-06-27）.
75. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-12-10）.
76. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-15）.
77. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-14）.
78. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-09-19）.
79. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-21）.
80. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2009-02-26）.
81. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-12-11）.
82. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-08-01）.
83. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-21）.
84. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-13）.
85. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-09-17）.
86. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-09-14）.
87. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-09-17）.
88. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-09-19）.
89. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-11）.
90. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-21）.
91. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-12-18）.
92. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-11-02）.
93. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-22）.
94. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2013-10-14）.
95. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-09-15）.
96. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-28）.
97. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2009-02-12）.
98. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-07）.
99. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-12-11）.
100. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-21）.
101. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-21）.
102. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-19）.
103. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2009-03-24）.
104. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-08）.
105. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-24）.
106. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-24）.
107. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-11）.
108. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2011-08-10）.
109. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008. Nobel Foundation. [2008-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2008-10-08）.
110. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009. Nobelprize.org. 2009-10-06 [2009-10-06]. （原始内容存档于2013-06-26）.
111. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009. Nobel Foundation. 2009-10-06 [2009-10-06]. （原始内容存档于2009-10-08）.
112. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010. Nobel Foundation. [2010-10-05]. （原始内容存档于2010-10-07）.
113. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011. Nobel Foundation. [2011-10-04]. （原始内容存档于2012-08-01）.
114. ^ The 2012 Nobel Prize in Physics. Nobel Foundation. [2012-10-09]. （原始内容存档于2012-10-11）.
115. ^ The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics. Nobel Foundation. [2013-10-08]. （原始内容存档于2013-10-08）.
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117. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015. Nobel Foundation. [2015-10-05]. （原始内容存档于2016-01-17）.
118. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016. Nobel Foundation. [2016-10-04]. （原始内容存档于2016-10-04）.
119. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017. Nobel Foundation. [2017-10-03]. （原始内容存档于2017-10-03）.
120. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018. Nobel Foundation. [2018-10-02].
121. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2019. Nobel Foundation. [2019-10-08].