For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for 质粒.

质粒

维基百科,自由的百科全书

右侧的环状DNA(脱氧核糖核酸)即为质粒
右侧的环状DNA(脱氧核糖核酸)即为质粒

质粒(英语:Plasmid),又名质体,是指在细胞的染色体或核区DNA之外,能够自主复制的DNA分子(字源:plasm为生殖质,-id表示粒)。质粒与染色体最主要的区分是,质粒不是细胞生存所必需,染色体则是细胞生存必需的。大部分的质粒都是环状分子,但是也有少数属于线状分子[1],它存在于许多细菌以及酵母菌生物中,乃至于植物的线粒体细胞器[1]。天然质粒的DNA长度从数千碱基对至数十万碱基对都有。质粒天然存在于这些生物里面,有时候一个细胞里面可以有一种乃至于数种的质粒的存在。质粒的套数英语Copy-number variation在细胞里从一到数千都有。有些质粒含有某种抗药基因(如大肠杆菌中就有含有抗四环素基因的质粒)。有一些质粒携带的基因可以赋予细胞额外的生理代谢能力,提高它的致病力。一般来说,质粒的存在与否对宿主细胞在良好环境下的生存没有决定性的作用。它是基因工程最常见的转载体

简单的说,可以将质粒视为基因的补充,并非必要,但其存在可使带有的生物更好的面对各种环境。

相关网站

参考文献

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Handa H. Linear plasmids in plant mitochondria: peaceful coexistences or malicious invasions?. Mitochondrion. 2008-01, 8 (1): 15–25 [2011-02-02]. (原始内容存档于2020-04-09). 

外部链接

{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
质粒
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install
{{::$root.activation.text}}

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!


Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.