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城市生态学

维基百科,自由的百科全书

纽约的中央公园代表了城市环境中的一个生态系统“碎片”。
纽约的中央公园代表了城市环境中的一个生态系统“碎片”。

城市生态学是研究城市环境中生物体之间及其生物体与周围环境的关系的科学研究。城市环境是指以高密度住宅和商业建筑、铺装路面以及其他与城市有关的因素为主的环境,这些因素形成了一种独特的景观,不同于以往生态学领域研究的大多数环境。[1]城市生态学的目标是实现人类文化与自然环境之间的平衡。[2]

与整个生态学学科相比,城市生态学是一个较新的研究领域。城市生态学的研究方法和研究内容与普通生态学相似,是生态学的一个分支。当今世界50%以上的人口生活在城市地区,因此城市生态学的研究也具有越来越重要的意义。[3]同时,据估计,在未来40年内,世界三分之二的人口将生活在不断扩大的城市中心。[4]城市环境中的生态过程与城市以外的生态过程一定程度上是相似的。然而,城市栖息地的类型和栖息在其中的物种却鲜有记载。通常情况下,其研究的中心是解释城市环境中的现像,以及预测因城市化而产生的变化。[1]

参见

参考文献

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Niemelä, Jari. Ecology and urban planning. Biodiversity and Conservation. 1999, 8 (1): 119–131. S2CID 36775732. doi:10.1023/A:1008817325994. 
  2. ^ Caves, R. W. Encyclopedia of the City. Routledge. 2004: 695. ISBN 978-0415862875. 
  3. ^ Singh, Govind. Urban Ecology & Ecosystem Inputs – Need of the Urban Era. Urban Ecology. 5 October 2014. 
  4. ^ World urbanization prospects: the 2007 revision. United Nations. 2007. [页码请求]

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城市生态学
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