For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for .

维基百科,自由的百科全书

此条目需要精通或熟悉相关主题的编者参与及协助编辑。 (2011年9月25日)请邀请适合的人士改善本条目。更多的细节与详情请参见讨论页
有机酸酯的通式
有机酸酯的通式

zhǐ音同“指”德文Ester[a])旧称𨤎,是指有机化学羧酸无机含氧酸发生酯化反应生成的产物。酯类除了羧酸酯外,也有硝酸硫酸等无机含氧酸酯。[1]

字源

本字由表意的“酉”(意为含官能团)和“旨”(表音)组成。应注意与“”的区别,脂(三酸甘油酯)是酯之一种,由甘油(丙三醇)与脂肪酸(长链羧酸)结合而成,所以脂不是等于酯。

物理性质

低级酯(低分子量的羧酸制成的酯),挥发性大,难溶于水,易溶于乙醇、乙醚等有机溶剂,密度小且具有香味。[2][3]

酯的制取

酯化反应

酯(如乙酸乙酯)可以由(如乙酸)和(如乙醇)在有浓硫酸并加热的条件下制得。因反应缓慢,需要催化剂(如:浓H2SO4)。[2]反应式如下:

酯化反应生成乙酸乙酯.PNG

此类由酸和醇在一定条件下生成酯的反应称为酯化反应。又例如,硬脂酸甘油酯化可得单硬脂酸甘油酯

光延反应

可以用此反应制备三苯基膦偶氮二羧酸二乙酯生成酯,该酯的特点是反应中发生瓦尔登翻转,产物的构型与底物的相反。

Mitsunobu反应

酯的水解

酯类与水会慢慢水解为酸和醇[4][5]

氧化酯基.PNG

具体以乙酸乙酯的水解为例:

酯的两种水解.PNG

酯在酸性碱性的环境下的水解产物不同。酸性下生成醇(或)和酸。碱性环境中生成醇(或酚)和羧酸盐。

卤代烃的对比

卤代烃可以由卤化氢(无氧酸)和醇制得,也可以发生水解反应生成卤化氢(无氧酸)和醇。所以卤代烃在某种程度上可以视为无氧酸的酯。

参考资料

引用
  1. ^ 国际纯化学和应用化学联合会."esters".《化学术语总目录》在线版.(英文)
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 March, J. “Advanced Organic Chemistry” 4th Ed. J. Wiley and Sons, 1992: New York. ISBN 0-471-60180-2.
  3. ^ Chemistry of Enols and Enolates - Acidity of alpha-hydrogens. [2014-09-27]. (原始内容存档于2018-01-07). 
  4. ^ Roger J. Williams, Alton Gabriel, Roy C. Andrews “The Relation Between the Hydrolysis Equilibrium Constant of Esters and the Strengths of the Corresponding Acids” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1928, volume 50, 1267. doi:10.1021/ja01392a005
  5. ^ B. Neises and W. Steglich. "Esterification of Carboxylic Acids with Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide/4-Dimethylaminopyridine: tert-Butyl ethyl fumarate". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 7: 93. 

脚注

  1. ^ 来自德语 Essigäther (又称 Ethylacetat“乙酸乙酯”)
{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install
{{::$root.activation.text}}

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!


Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.