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酰基

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一般酰基(蓝色),酰基离子(顶部中央),酰基自由基(右上),酮(左上),醛(左下),酯(底部中央),酰胺(右下)。 (R1,R2,R3:有机取代基或氢)。
一般酰基(蓝色),酰基离子(顶部中央),酰基自由基(右上),(左上),(左下),(底部中央),酰胺(右下)。 (R1,R2,R3:有机取代基或氢)。
酰基的结构。
酰基的结构。

xiān[注 1](英语:Acyl group),是指从含氧酸,包括无机酸中除去一个或多个羟基基团的衍生的官能团,通式为R-M(O)-。它包含一个双键氧原子和烷基(R-C=O)。在有机化学中,酰基(IUPAC名:链烷酰基)通常是衍生自羧酸。因此,它具有结构式RCO-,其中R代表被附着到CO基用单键的烷基。虽然称呼几乎总是应用于有机化合物,但酰基原则上可以是来自于其它类型的酸如磺酸膦酸。在最常见的安排,酰基连接到一个更大的分子片段,在这种情况下,碳和氧原子通过双键相连。

酰基与卤素原子、烷氧基氨基或取代氨基及酰氧基结合可以分别获得酰卤酰胺酸酐[1]

通常酰基中的中心原子M都为,但等原子也可以形成类似的酰基化合物,如亚硝酰氟三氯氧磷硫酰氯氯化亚砜四氟一氧化氙。此类酰卤一般称为卤氧化物

注释

  1. ^ xiān”也叫“酰基”,中国大陆旧称“”,台湾仍称“醯”或“醯基”。

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酰基
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