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量子线路

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量子线路或沿用古典称呼而称作量子电路,是在抽象概念下,对于量子资讯储存单元(例如量子比特)进行操作的线路。组成包括了于量子资讯储存单元、线路(时间线),以及各种逻辑门;最后常需要量子测量将结果读取出来。

实际上在以物理系统实践量子计算机时,需要透过转换,成为实际上的操作方式。例如在核磁共振量子电脑,就需要转换成射频,或者射频搭配梯度磁场的磁振脉冲序列

接线

不同于传统电路是用金属线所连接以传递电压信号或电流信号;在量子线路中,线路是由时间所连接,亦即量子比特的状态随着时间自然演化,过程中是按照汉密顿算符的指示,一直到遇上逻辑门而被操作。

逻辑门

量子逻辑门可以分为针对单一量子比特的操作,或者是使两个比特发生互动关系。列举如下:

单一比特操作

  • 量子非门( (quantum) NOT gate)
  • 相位偏移闸(phase shift gate)
  • 旋转闸(rotation gate):旋转闸为最广义的单比特逻辑门,事实上可以包括相位偏移闸、非门等特例。

双比特操作

  • 受控非门(controlled NOT gate)
  • 受控相位偏移闸(controlled phase shift gate)
  • 互换闸(swap gate)

逻辑门通用性

事实上,任一种量子线路逻辑门可以由单一比特逻辑门与双比特逻辑门的结合运用所组成,这称为逻辑门通用性(universality of logic gates)。基于这个机制,可以利用旋转闸和受控非门组出对三个以上比特的操作。

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量子线路
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