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锻造

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锻造(Forging),是金属压力加工方法之一。指利用压力改变金属原料形状,以获得具有一定机械性能、一定形状和尺寸的锻件的一种加工工艺。 锻造是一种利用局部压缩力对金属进行成型的制造工艺。打击是用锤子(通常是动力锤)或模具进行的。锻造通常根据其进行的温度进行分类:冷锻造(一种冷加工)或热锻造(一种热加工)。对于后两者,金属被加热,通常是在锻造中。锻造零件的重量可以从不到一公斤到数百公吨不等。锻造已经由铁匠完成了几千年;传统产品有厨具、五金、手工工具、边缘武器、铜鼓和珠宝。自工业革命以来,锻造部件被广泛用于需要高强度的机械;这类锻件通常需要进一步加工(如加工)来实现成品。如今,锻造是一个重要的世界性产业。

分类

根据加工时工件的温度,可将锻造分为:热锻(再结晶(recrystallization)温度以上);温锻(再结晶温度~再结晶温度的30%[注 1]);冷锻(再结晶温度的30%以下,一般是室温)。常把坯料加热后,用手锤、锻锤或压力机等锤击或加压,使它发生塑性变形,成为一定形状和尺寸的工件,所得的工件称为锻件,锻造能改变金属组织、提高其机械性能,因此在机械制造中常用来制造承受较大动载荷的零件。

  • 按成型用的工具,分为自由锻模锻
  • 按锻件有无飞边,分为开式锻造闭式锻造
  • 增质式3D打印的锻造

外部链接

参见

注释

  1. ^ 需以热力学温标计算,即开尔文温标。下同。

参考文献


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锻造
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