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鎏金

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唐鎏金飞廉纹六曲银盘,8世纪,西安市南郊何家村出土
唐鎏金飞廉纹六曲银盘,8世纪,西安市南郊何家村出土

鎏金[1],又称黄涂、金涂、火镀金、飞金,是一种铜器装饰工艺,用来在金属表面加上金层。鎏金不同于包金贴金。鎏金层比贴金更耐用、厚实、滋润,而包金也有其独特的制作手法。缺点是鎏金过程使用到有毒的汞。以同样的方法可以鎏银。[2]

工艺法是将金溶于水银之中,形成金泥,涂于铜或银表面加温,使水银蒸发,金就附在器物表面上,称为鎏金。

方法

  1. 先打磨清洗要鎏金的铜器、银器等表面,除去油脂氧化物等污物。
  2. 然后将混合,金汞比例大致为1:6,形成液体合金(金汞齐)。
  3. 涂抹在表面。
  4. 无烟炭火温烘烤令汞蒸发,剩下金层。
  5. 然后打磨使之光亮。

历史

早在春秋战国之交已有鎏金器,鎏金工艺更在迈向鼎盛。

注释

  1. ^ “鎏”音同“流”,注音:ㄌㄧㄡˊ;拼音:liú。
  2. ^ 《中国青铜器辞典》,第六册,1553页。
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鎏金
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