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开前不圆唇元音

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开前不圆唇元音
a
æ̞
IPA编号304
编码
HTML码(十进制)a
Unicode码(十六进制)U+0061
X-SAMPA音标a{_o
ASCII音标a
IPA盲文英语IPA Braille
⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
音频范例

开前不圆唇元音元音的一种,用于一些口语当中,国际音标a代表此音,而X-SAMPA音标则以a代表此音。 根据《吉尼斯世界纪录大全》,这个音是全世界最多语言使用的音素。[来源请求]

特征

  • 圆唇度不圆唇元音,嘴唇自然放松,不特别向前突起。


该音出现于

许多语言都拥有不同形式的此元音。对于只有一个开(低)元音的语,通常会使用a这个元音符号,因为这个符号是基本拉丁字母中唯一的低元音。

语言 字汇 IPA 意义 注释
阿拉伯语 黎凡特[1] بان [baːn] (他/它)出现 详见阿拉伯语音系
保加利亚语[2] най [na̠j]
加泰隆语 马约卡 sac英语Catalan orthography [sak] 开除 对应到其他方言中的 [ä]。详见加泰隆音系
英语 加拿大[3] hat [hat] 帽子 依地区而定,这个音可能被发成偏前的[ɛ]至偏后的[ɑ]。参见 英语正音法英语English_orthography
爱尔兰
牙买加
北英格兰
约翰内斯堡北郊 [4]
标准英音[5]
南英格兰英语English language in southern England
威尔士
考克尼[6][7] stuck [stak] 粘(stick的过去式及过去分词) 也可以发成 [ɐ̟] 音。
美国北部内陆 [8] stock 存货 Less front [ɑ ~ ä] in other American dialects. See Northern cities vowel shift
爱尔兰英语都柏林地区 Less front [ɒ ~ ɑ] in Mainstream Dublin, open-mid rounded [ɔ] in New Dublin.
德语 伯恩地区英语Bernese German drääje [ˈtræ̞ːjə] 转向 详见 伯恩德语音系英语Bernese German phonology
古吉拉特语 શાંતિ shanti [ʃant̪i] 和平 详见古吉拉特语音系英语Gujarati phonology
卡巴尔达语 дахэ [daːxa] 漂亮的
卢森堡语[9] Kap [kʰa̠ːpʰ] 帽子
北弗里斯兰语 braan [braːn] 燃烧
挪威语 斯塔万格地区[10] hatt [hat] 帽子 对应到标准东挪威语的[ä]。详见挪威语音系
特隆赫姆地区
(挪威) [11]
lær [laːɾ] 皮革 对应到标准东挪威语的[æː]。详见挪威语音系
西阿格德尔地区
(挪威) [12]
hat [haːt] 讨厌 在某些方言中,这个音的发音位置甚至更后面。对应到标准东挪威语的[æː]。详见挪威语音系。
波兰语[13] jajo英语Polish orthography [ˈjajɔ] Fronted allophone of /a/ [ä] between palatal or palatalized consonants. 参见波兰语音系
西班牙语 安达卢西亚地区[14] las madres [læ̞(h) ˈmæ̞ːð̞ɾɛ(h)] 母亲们 对应到其他方言中的 [ä],但在这些方言中他们已经灭绝了。详见 西班牙语音系
莫夕亚地区[14]
威尔士语 mam英语Welsh phonology [mam] 母亲 See 威尔士语音系英语Welsh phonology
萨波特克语 蒂尔基亚潘萨波特克语英语Tilquiapan Zapotec[15] na [na] 现在
汉语 标准汉语 拉/lā/ㄌ [la˥˥]

参考资料

  1. ^ Thelwall & Sa'Adeddin (1990:38页)
  2. ^ Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999)
  3. ^ Boberg (2005:133–154页)
  4. ^ Bekker (2008:83–84页)
  5. ^ Case Studies – Received Pronunciation Phonology – RP Vowel Sounds. British Library. [2014-04-06]. (原始内容存档于2018-12-25). 
  6. ^ Wells (1982:305页)
  7. ^ Hughes & Trudgill (1979:35页)
  8. ^ W. Labov, S. Ash and C. Boberg. A national map of the regional dialects of American English. Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania. 1997 [March 7, 2013]. (原始内容存档于2005-12-23). 
  9. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70页)
  10. ^ Vanvik (1979:17页)
  11. ^ Vanvik (1979:15页)
  12. ^ Vanvik (1979:16页)
  13. ^ Jassem (2003:106页)
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 Zamora Vicente (1967:?页)
  15. ^ Merrill (2008:109页)

参考书目

  • Bekker, Ian, The vowels of South African English (PDF), 2008 [2014-04-06], (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2021-02-07) 
  • Boberg, C., The Canadian shift in Montreal, Language Variation and Change, 2005, 17: 133–154 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen, Luxembourgish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2013, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278 
  • Hughes, Arthur; Trudgill, Peter, English Accents and Dialects: An Introduction to Social and Regional Varieties of British English, Baltimore: University Park Press, 1979 
  • Jassem, Wiktor, Polish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2003, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Ladefoged, Peter, American English, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association (Cambridge Univ. Press), 1999: 41–44 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth, Tilquiapan Zapotec, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2008, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Ternes, Elmer; Vladimirova-Buhtz, Tatjana, Bulgarian, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press: 55–57, 1999, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Thelwall, Robin; Sa'Adeddin, M. Akram, Arabic, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 1990, 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266 
  • Vanvik, Arne, Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, 1979, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Wells, J.C., Accents of English, 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982 
  • Zamora Vicente, Alonso, Dialectología española 2nd, Biblioteca Romanica Hispanica, Editorial Gredos, 1967 [2022-02-12], (原始内容存档于2021-02-25) 

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开前不圆唇元音
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