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阴历(英语:lunar calendar)又称太阴历,在天文学中与阳历对应,指主要按月亮月相周期来安排的历法;不据地球围绕太阳公转轨道位置。它的一年有12个朔望月,约354或355日。主要根据月亮绕地球运行一周时间为一个月,称为朔望月,大约29.530588日,分为大月30日、小月29日。



在古代农业经济中,春天播种、秋天收耕,本来阳历应更能反映农业周期,但不少古代历法都是由月亮算起,一个推测是黑夜中的月亮特别容易观察,月亮盈亏一目了然,直至天文技术成熟后,他们才能观察到太阳在历法中的欸欸 [1]




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