# 电磁辐射

## 概念

### 波动模型

${\displaystyle v=\nu \lambda \,\!}$

${\displaystyle u={\frac {1}{2\mu _{0))}B^{2}+{\frac {\epsilon _{0)){2))E^{2}\,\!}$

### 粒子模型和量子理论

${\displaystyle E=h\nu \,\!}$

${\displaystyle p={\frac {E}{c))={\frac {h\nu }{c))={\frac {h}{\lambda ))\,\!}$

### 传播速度

${\displaystyle E=h\nu \,\!}$

${\displaystyle n=c/v\,\!}$

## 热辐射

${\displaystyle {U \over V}={\frac {8\pi ^{5}(kT)^{4)){15(hc)^{3))}\,\!}$

${\displaystyle C_{V}={\frac {32\pi ^{5}k^{4}T^{3)){15(hc)^{3))}\,\!}$

## 从电磁理论推导

${\displaystyle \nabla \cdot \mathbf {E} =0\,\!}$（1）
${\displaystyle \nabla \times \mathbf {E} =-{\frac {\partial \mathbf {B} }{\partial t))\,\!}$（2）
${\displaystyle \nabla \cdot \mathbf {B} =0\,\!}$（3）
${\displaystyle \nabla \times \mathbf {B} =\mu _{0}\epsilon _{0}{\frac {\partial \mathbf {E} }{\partial t))\,\!}$（4）

${\displaystyle \nabla \times \left(\nabla \times \mathbf {E} \right)=\nabla \times \left(-{\frac {\partial \mathbf {B} }{\partial t))\right)\,\!}$（5）

${\displaystyle \nabla \times \left(\nabla \times \mathbf {E} \right)=\nabla \left(\nabla \cdot \mathbf {E} \right)-\nabla ^{2}\mathbf {E} =-\nabla ^{2}\mathbf {E} \,\!}$（6）

${\displaystyle \nabla \times \left(-{\frac {\partial \mathbf {B} }{\partial t))\right)=-{\frac {\partial }{\partial t))\left(\nabla \times \mathbf {B} \right)=-\mu _{0}\epsilon _{0}{\frac {\partial ^{2}\mathbf {E} }{\partial t^{2))}\,\!}$（7）

 ${\displaystyle \nabla ^{2}\mathbf {E} =\mu _{0}\epsilon _{0}{\frac {\partial ^{2}\mathbf {E} }{\partial t^{2))}\,\!}$。

 ${\displaystyle \nabla ^{2}\mathbf {B} =\mu _{0}\epsilon _{0}{\frac {\partial ^{2}\mathbf {B} }{\partial t^{2))}\,\!}$。

${\displaystyle \Box \mathbf {E} =0\,\!}$
${\displaystyle \Box \mathbf {B} =0\,\!}$

${\displaystyle \mathbf {E} =\mathbf {E} _{0}f\left(\mathbf {k} \cdot \mathbf {r} -\omega t\right)\,\!}$

${\displaystyle \nabla ^{2}f\left(\mathbf {k} \cdot \mathbf {r} -\omega t\right)={\frac {1}((c_{0))^{2))}{\frac {\partial ^{2)){\partial t^{2))}f\left(\mathbf {k} \cdot \mathbf {r} -\omega t\right)\,\!}$

${\displaystyle \nabla \cdot \mathbf {E} =\mathbf {k} \cdot \mathbf {E} _{0}f'\left(\mathbf {k} \cdot \mathbf {r} -\omega t\right)=0\,\!}$

${\displaystyle \mathbf {E} \cdot \mathbf {k} =0\,\!}$

${\displaystyle \nabla \times \mathbf {E} ={\hat {\mathbf {k} ))\times \mathbf {E} _{0}f'\left(\mathbf {k} \cdot \mathbf {r} -\omega t\right)=-{\frac {\partial \mathbf {B} }{\partial t))\,\!}$

${\displaystyle \mathbf {B} ={\frac {1}{\omega ))\mathbf {k} \times \mathbf {E} \,\!}$

## 辐射的影响

### 人体影响

X光伽马射线属于电离辐射，会使生物的基因损坏或突变，甚至导致癌症。这些电磁波辐射允许剂量由法律确定。

## 参考文献

1. ^ 惠阳区环保局. 电磁辐射常识. 惠阳区人民政府. [2022-07-15]. （原始内容存档于2022-07-15） （中文（中国大陆））.
2. ^ Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 90 (1800), pp. 284-292, http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/107057
3. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online. James Clerk Maxwell. Encyclopædia Britannica. [2009-08-24]. （原始内容存档于2009-08-31） （英语）.
4. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Heinrich Hertz. Encyclopædia Britannica. [2009-08-25]. （原始内容存档于2009-09-01） （英语）.
5. ^ 麦克斯韦, 詹姆斯, A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field (pdf), Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1865, 155: 459–512 [2015-04-23], （原始内容存档 (PDF)于2011-07-28）
6. ^ Whittaker, E. T., A history of the theories of aether and electricity. Vol 1, Nelson, London, 1951
7. 詹姆士·金斯 (1947) The Growth of Physical Science, link from Internet Archive
8. Griffiths, David J. Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. 1998: pp. 364–374, 416–471. ISBN 0-13-805326-X.
9. Halliday, David; Robert Resnick, Jearl Walker. Fundamental of Physics 7th. USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 2005. ISBN 0-471-23231-9.
10. ^ Jackson, John David, Classical Electrodynamic 3rd., USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999, ISBN 978-0-471-30932-1
11. ^ Hecht, Eugene, Optics 4th, United States of America: Addison Wesley, 2002, ISBN 0-8053-8566-5 （英语）
12. ^ Weinberger, P., John Kerr and his Effects Found in 1877 and 1878 (PDF), Philosophical Magazine Letters: 897–907, [2015-04-24], （原始内容存档 (PDF)于2020-04-08）
13. ^ Richard Phillips Feynman; A. Zee. QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. Princeton University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-691-12575-9.
14. ^ George Greenstein; Arthur Zajonc. The Quantum Challenge: Modern Research on the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Jones & Bartlett Learning. 2006. ISBN 978-0-7637-2470-2.
15. ^ French, Anthony, An Introduction to Quantum Physics, W. W. Norton, Inc., 1978
16. ^ 国际纯化学和应用化学联合会．"photoionization"．《化学术语总目录》在线版．（英文）
17. Griffiths, David J. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics(2nd ed.). Prentice Hall. 2004: pp. 348–359. ISBN 0-13-111892-7.
18. ^ Griffiths, David J., Hyperfine splitting in the ground state of hydrogen (PDF), American Journal of Physics, August 1982, 50 (8): pp. 698 [2010-04-30], （原始内容 (PDF)存档于2020-05-12）
19. ^ 饭岛　纯夫、电磁场が染色体に及ぼす影响[永久失效链接]、山梨医大志 14 (1)，1 - 5，1999。
20. ^ WHOファクトシートNo.263,"电磁界と公众卫生:“超低周波电磁界とがん”", 2001年10月 [1]PDF
21. ^ Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile phones. Fact sheet N°193. World Health Organization. June 2011 [5 November 2013]. （原始内容存档于2016-05-25）.
22. ^ 超低周波電磁界による健康リスクの評価に関する研究（特別研究） 平成9〜11年度 国立環境研究所研究プロジェクト報告. 国立环境研究所. [2022-04-15]. （原始内容存档于2021-04-08） （日语）.
23. ^ 国际非电离放射线防护委员会(ICNIRP), "时间変化する电界、磁界及び电磁界による曝露を制限するためのガイドライン（300 GHz まで）", 1998年4月[2]页面存档备份，存于互联网档案馆
24. ^ 総务省 电波利用ホームページ 电波环境の保护[3]页面存档备份，存于互联网档案馆

## 外部链接

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.

Back to homepage

Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
then click Install
then click Install

#### Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox

#### Enjoying Wikiwand?

Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer