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帮助:挪威语国际音标

维基百科,自由的百科全书

下表显示在维基条目中的一些挪威语的内容如何使用国际音标发音。这里使用的口音是城市东挪威语英语Urban East Norwegian这种口音使用于奥斯陆地区,是书面挪威语的非官方发音标准,也是外国人最常学习的口音。关于发音的详细资讯请参见挪威语音系学英语Norwegian phonology

辅音
IPA 例子 最接近的英文等价发音
b bil bee
ç kjip huge 类似
d dag day
ɖ sardin[1] 卷舌/d/
ʁd (无等价英文发音)
f fot foot
ɡ god good
h hatt hat
j jojo yoyo
k kafé café
l lake lack
little
ɭ Karl[1] 卷舌的 /l/
ʁl (无等价英文发音)
m man man
n natt night
natten chosen
ɳ barn[1] 卷舌的 /n/
ʁn (无等价英文发音)
ɳ̍ baren
ŋ ting thing
p pappa papa
r år[1][2] 闪音颤音的“r”。
ʁ 法语:rester;大约跟苏格兰英语 loch 相似
ɽ 西班牙语Caro相同,但是是卷舌音
ɽ̍ 关于这个音频文件 lerenga (无等价英文发音)
s sabel sabre
ʂ sjø shoe 相似,但是卷舌音
torsdag[1] shoe
ʁs (无等价英文发音)
t tirsdag tea
ʈ parti[1] 卷舌/t/
ʁt (无等价英文发音)
v vaktel vat
Vowels
IPA 例子 最接近的英文等价发音
单元音
ɑ fast art
ɑː mat bra, 标准英音(RP)的 car
æ fersk[3] trap
æː ære[3] 澳洲英语的 mad
e helle[3] 北美英语与通用英音的 set
hel[3] 苏格兰英语的 save
i sill hill
i need
ɔ åtte[4] 标准英音的 lot;北美英语的 fort
ɔː mål[4] 苏格兰语的 stove;标准英音的 law
ø nøtt[4] 与 Burt相似;与德文的短音ö相同
øː dø[4] 与 bird 相似,与德文的长音ö 相同
u ond[4] put,而嘴唇紧绷
bot[4] fool
ʉ full[4][5] Australian choose; Like German müssen
ʉː ful[4][6] Australian goose;与德文的 üben相同
y nytt[4][5] 跟 hit 有些类似;即把/i/念成圆唇音。与瑞典语 syll [sʏlː]
syl[4][6] leave 有些相似,即用圆唇发/iː/的音;此音亦与瑞典语的 syll相同
双元音
ɑi kai[7] 澳洲英文的 price
æi bein 澳洲英文的 day
æʉ hauk[4] 与澳洲英文的 now 有些类似
ei tape[7] day
ɔy boikott[4][7] boy
øy røyk[4] house 有些相似
ʉi hui[4][8] to eternity
弱化元音
ə påle about
重音声调
IPA 例子 解释
ˈ bønder
[ˈbønːər]
[ˈbønːəʁ]
第一声/尖音符[9]
  • 奥斯陆特隆赫姆低升调(low-rising):[ˈbø̀nːə̌r]
  • 卑尔根降低调(falling-low):[ˈbø̂nːə̀ʁ]
  • 斯塔万格升降调(rising-falling):[ˈbø̌nːɔ̂ʁ]
  • 在一些口音中为单纯的主重音[ˈbønːər][10]
² bønner
[²bønːər]
[²bønːəʁ]
第二声/重音符[9]
  • 在奥斯陆和特隆赫姆是降升调(falling-rising):[ˈbø̂nːə̌r]
  • 在卑尔根是升降调(rising-falling):[ˈbø̌nːə̂ʁ]
  • 在斯塔万格是重降调(falling-falling):[ˈbø̂nːɔ̂ʁ]
  • 在一些口音中为单纯的主重音[ˈbønːər][10]

注解

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 在许多拥有舌尖卷舌音的方言中,a recursive Sandhi process of retroflexion occurs, and clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realizations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern and Western Norwegian dialects, they are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt].
  2. ^ /r/ varies considerably in different dialects: it is alveolar in some dialects and uvular in others.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: /eː/ and /e/ lower to [æː] and [æ].
  4. ^ 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 [ɔ, ɔː, ø, øː, y, , ɔy, øy] are protruded vowels, and [ʉ, ʉː, u, ] (including the [ʉ] element in [æʉ] and [ʉi]) are compressed; see roundedness for details.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 The distinction between compressed [ʉ] and protruded [y] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Norwegian compressed [ʉ] sounds very close to German compressed [ʏ] (as in müssen [ˈmʏsn̩] ).
    • Norwegian protruded [y] sounds more similar to English unrounded [ɪ] (as in hit) than to German compressed [ʏ], and it is very close to Swedish protruded [ʏ] (as in syll [sʏlː] ).
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 The distinction between compressed [ʉː] and protruded [yː] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • 挪威语 compressed [ʉː] sounds very close to German compressed [yː] (as in üben [ˈyːbn̩] ).
    • 挪威语 protruded [yː] sounds more similar to English unrounded [] (as in leave) than to German compressed [yː], and it is very close to Swedish protruded [yː] (as in syl [syːl] ).
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 /ɑi, ei, ɔy/ appear only in loanwords. /ei/ is used only by some younger speakers, who contrast it with /æi/; speakers who do not have /ei/ in their diphthong inventory replace it with /æi/ (Kristoffersen (2000:19)).
  8. ^ /ʉi/只出现在 hui 一字中(Kristoffersen (2000:19))。
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 除非必要,否则条目中一般不会使用严式标音标注挪威语字词的声调。
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 一些口音只有单纯的主重音,而没有具音高对比的声调。例如,在这些口音中,bønder(农夫)和bønner(豆子)的发音完全相同。

参考资料

  • Berulfsen, Bjarne, Norsk Uttaleordbok, Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co (W Nygaard), 1969 (挪威语) 
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert, The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5 
  • Skaug, Ingebjørg, Norsk språklydlære med øvelser 3rd, Oslo: Cappelen Akademisk Forlag AS, 2003 [First published 1996], ISBN 82-456-0178-0 (挪威语) 
  • Strandskogen, Åse-Berit, Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger, Oslo: Gyldendal, 1979, ISBN 82-05-10107-8 (挪威语) 
  • Vanvik, Arne, Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, 1979, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 (挪威语) 
  • Vanvik, Arne, Norsk Uttaleordbok: A Norwegian pronouncing dictionary, Oslo: Fonetisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo, 1985, ISBN 978-8299058414 

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帮助:挪威语国际音标
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