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薩利希語系

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Salishan
地理分布: 加拿大不列顛哥倫比亞美國華盛頓州
譜系學分類 美洲原住民語言
分支:
貝拉庫拉語族
海岸薩利希語族
內陸薩利希語族
語言代碼
ISO 639-2 / 5: sal

Pre-contact distribution of Salishan languages(紅色)

薩利希語系,若根據當地華民對原住民的稱呼,亦可作沙利殊語系。它是北美原住民的一個語系,一共包括23種語言,現時分為以下三個分支:貝拉庫拉語族、海岸薩利希語族及內陸薩利希語族。

薩利希語言分布在美國華盛頓州以及加拿大不列顛哥倫比亞環薩利希海一帶。

這些語言最顯著的特徵之一是其極為複雜的輔音結構,例如努哈爾克語(Nuxálk)單詞xłp̓x̣ʷłtłpłłskʷc̓ (國際音標:[xɬp'χʷɬtɬpɬːskʷʦ'])「他曾經有過一棵草茱萸」有連續13個輔音,中間沒有元音。

分支

薩利希語系總共有23種語言,下列為這個語系所包括的所有語言、方言及次方言。這個分類表純綷照語言學的角度來分類,不涉及政治分界上的考慮。若依照當地原住民社群的意願,不少方言都被認為應視作獨立的語言。

Flathead Indians(1903年)
Flathead Indians(1903年)

貝拉庫拉語族(Bella Coola

1. 努哈爾克語 (Nuxálk,又名 Bella Coola, Salmon River)

海岸薩利希語族(Coast Salish

A. 中部海岸薩利希語 (a.k.a. Central Salish)
2. Comox
  • Island Comox (a.k.a. Qʼómox̣ʷs)
  • Sliammon (Homalco-Klahoose-Sliammon) (a.k.a. ʔayʔaǰúθəm)
3. 哈爾魁梅林語
Island (a.k.a. Hulʼq̱ʼumiʼnumʼ, həl̕q̓əmín̓əm̓)
  • Cowichan
  • Snuneymuxw/Nanaimo
Downriver (a.k.a. Hunqʼumʔiʔnumʔ)
  • Musqueam
Upriver (a.k.a. Upper Sto:lo, Halqʼəméyləm)
  • Katzie
  • Kwantlen
  • Chehalis (Canada)
  • Chilliwack
  • Tait
  • Skway
4. Lushootseed (a.k.a. Puget Salish, Skagit-Nisqually, Dxʷləšúcid)
Northern
  • Skagit (a.k.a. Skaǰət)
  • Snohomish (a.k.a. Sduhubš)
Southern
  • Duwamish-Suquamish (a.k.a. Dxʷduʔabš)
  • Puyallup (a.k.a. Spuyaləpubš)
  • Nisqually (a.k.a. Sqʷaliʔabš)
5. Nooksack (a.k.a. Nooksack ɬə́čələsəm, ɬə́čælosəm) (†)
6. Pentlatch (a.k.a. Pənƛ̕áč) (†)
7. Sháshíshálh (a.k.a. Sechelt, Seshelt, Shashishalhem, šášíšáɬəm)
8. Squamish (a.k.a. Sḵwx̱wú7mesh snichim, Sḵwx̱wú7mesh, Sqwxwu7mish, sqʷx̣ʷúʔməš)
i. Straits Salish group (a.k.a. Straits)
9. Klallam (a.k.a. Clallam, Nəxʷsƛ̕áy̓emúcən)
  • Becher Bay
  • Eastern
  • Western
10. 北方海峽薩利希語 (a.k.a. Straits)
  • Lummi (a.k.a. Xwlemiʼchosen, xʷləmiʔčósən) (†)
  • Saanich (a.k.a. SENĆOŦEN, sənčáθən, sénəčqən)
  • Samish (a.k.a. Siʔneməš)
  • Semiahmoo (a.k.a. Tah-tu-lo) (†)
  • Sooke (a.k.a. Tʼsou-ke, c̓awk) (†)
  • Songhees (a.k.a. Lək̓ʷəŋín̓əŋ) (†)
11. Twana (a.k.a. Skokomish, Sqʷuqʷúʔbəšq, Tuwáduqutšad) (†)
  • Quilcene
  • Skokomish (a.k.a. Sqʷuqʷúʔbəšq)
B. Tsamosan (a.k.a. Olympic)
i. Inland
12. Cowlitz (a.k.a. Lower Cowlitz, Sƛ̕púlmš) (†)
13. Upper Chehalis (a.k.a. Q̉ʷay̓áyiɬq̉) (†)
  • Oakville Chehalis
  • Satsop
  • Tenino Chehalis
ii. Maritime
14. Lower Chehalis (a.k.a. ɬəw̓ál̕məš) (†)
  • Humptulips
  • Westport-Shoalwater
  • Wynoochee
15. Quinault (a.k.a. Kʷínayɬ)
  • Queets
  • Quinault
C. Tillamook
16. Tillamook (a.k.a. Hutyéyu) (†)
Siletz
  • Siletz
Tillamook

內陸薩利希語族(Interior Salish

A. 北部(Northern)
17. Shuswap (在 Ubuntu 作 Secwepemctsín,səxwəpməxcín)
東部方言
  • Kinbasket
  • Shuswap Lake
西部方言
  • Canim Lake
  • Chu Chua
  • Deadman's Creek–Kamloops
  • Fraser River
  • Pavilion-Bonaparte
18. Stʼatʼimcets (a.k.a. Lillooet, Lilloet, St'át'imcets)
  • Lillooet-Fountain
  • Mount Currie–Douglas
19. Thompson River Salish (a.k.a. Nlakaʼpamux, Ntlakapmuk, nɬeʔkepmxcín, Thompson River, Thompson Salish, Thompson, known in frontier times as the Hakamaugh, Klackarpun, Couteau or Knife Indians)
  • Lytton
  • Nicola Valley
  • Spuzzum–Boston Bar
  • Thompson Canyon
B. 南部(Southern)
20. Coeur d』Alene (a.k.a. Snchitsuʼumshtsn, snčícuʔumšcn)
21. Columbia-Moses (a.k.a. Columbia, Nxaʔamxcín)
  • Chelan
  • Entiat
  • Columbian
  • Wenatchee (a.k.a. Pesquous)
22. Colville-Okanagan (a.k.a. Okanagan, Nsilxcín, Nsíylxcən, ta nukunaqínxcən)
Northern
  • Quilchena & Spaxomin[1]
  • Arrow Lakes
  • Penticton
  • Similkameen
  • Vernon
Southern
  • Colville-Inchelium
  • Methow
  • San Poil–Nespelem
  • Southern Okanogan
23. Spokane-Kalispel-Bitterroot Salish-Upper Pend d'Oreille
  • Salish (a.k.a. Séliš, Bitterroot Salish, Flathead)
  • Kalispel (a.k.a. Qalispé)
  • Chewelah
  • Kalispel (a.k.a. Qlispé, Lower Pend d'Oreille, Lower Kalispel)
  • Upper Pend d』Oreile (a.k.a. Čłqetkʷmcin, Qlispé)
  • Spokane (a.k.a. Npoqínišcn)

Pentlatch, Nooksack, Twana, Lower Chehalis, Upper Chehalis, Cowlitz, 及 Tillamook 等多個語言現時均已消亡。此外,北方海峽的 Lummi, Semiahmoo, Songhees 及 Sooke 等方言亦同樣已消亡。

參考資料

腳註

參考文獻

  • Boas, Franz, et al. (1917). Folk-Tales of Salishan and Sahaptin Tribes. Memoirs of the American Folk-lore Society, 11. Lancaster, Pa: American Folk-Lore Society.
  • Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa; & Kinkade, M. Dale (Eds.). (1997). Salish languages and linguistics: Theoretical and descriptive perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-015492-7.
  • Flathead Culture Committee. (1981). Common Names of the Flathead Language. St. Ignatius, Mont: The Committee.
  • Kroeber, Paul D. (1999). The Salish language family: Reconstructing syntax. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press in cooperation with the American Indian Studies Research Institute, Indiana University, Bloomington.
  • Kuipers, Aert H. (2002).Salish Etymological Dictionary. Missoula, MT: Linguistics Laboratory, University of Montana. ISBN 1879763168
  • Liedtke, Stefan. (1995). Wakashan, Salishan and Penutian and Wider Connections Cognate Sets. Linguistic data on diskette series, no. 09. Munchen: Lincom Europa,z\v1995.
  • Pilling, James Constantine. (1893). Bibliography of the Salishan Languages. Washington: G.P.O..
  • Pilling, James Constantine (2007). Bibliography of the Salishan Languages. Reprint by Gardners Books. ISBN 9781430469278
  • Thompson, Laurence C. (1973). The northwest. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Linguistics in North America (pp. 979–1045). Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 10). The Hague: Mouton.
  • Thompson, Laurence C. (1979). Salishan and the northwest. In L. Campbell & M. Mithun (Eds.), The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment (pp. 692–765). Austin: University of Texas Press.

外部連結

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薩利希語系
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