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伴奏

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書

Oom cha cha 係華爾茲常用嘅伴奏  上面嗰段伴奏嘅聲
Oom cha cha華爾茲常用嘅伴奏
上面嗰段伴奏嘅聲

伴奏粵拼bun6 zau3英文accompaniment)係指一首樂曲當中所謂嘅「次要聲部」,負責為首樂曲嘅主旋律提供節奏或者和音上嘅支援[1]

舉個例說明,華爾茲(Waltz)呢種曲種用嘅典型拍號係 3/4,即係話典型嘅華爾茲樂曲每段節拍三吓拍子,當中每吓拍子係一個四分音符咁長,每段小節第一吓拍子,而華爾茲成日都會用類似附圖噉嘅伴奏-首伴奏係「1 2 3,1 2 3,1 2 3...」噉嘅規律,當中每段節拍第一吓拍子,似十足華爾茲應有嘅節奏噉,所以呢種伴奏攞嚟傍住一首華爾茲樂曲可以起到「幫演奏同嘗試跟首曲跳舞嘅人留意住啲拍子」嘅作用(支援首主旋律)-聽住華爾滋樂曲跳舞嘅人可以聽住伴奏嘅「1 2 3,1 2 3,1 2 3...」規律嚟一路知道拍子嘅行進[2]

常用伴奏

睇埋:和弦低音同埋琶音

伴奏可以分好多種,唔同嘅曲種往往會偏好唔同嘅伴奏,包括:

  • 華爾滋(Waltz)興用嘅 oom cha cha
  • 常見於古典樂阿爾伯蒂低音(Alberti bass):一種低音嘅 4/4 式伴奏,常用攞嚟襯托古典樂興用嘅 4/4 樂曲,定義上係指段嘢跟「最低嗰個音符行先,跟住最高音嗰個,跟住中間嗰個,最後再出多次最高音嗰個」嘅規律,重複若干次[3]
莫札特嘅《C 大調第 16 號鋼琴奏鳴曲》用咗阿爾伯蒂低音;呢度淨係顯示咗首曲頭嗰大約 5 秒。
莫札特嘅《C 大調第 16 號鋼琴奏鳴曲》用咗阿爾伯蒂低音;呢度淨係顯示咗首曲頭嗰大約 5 秒。
  • 普卡(Polka;一種興用雙拍子舞曲,喺愛爾蘭好盛行)興用嘅 oom pah:跟「1 2,1 2...」噉嘅規律嘅伴奏;段伴奏交替噉出一吓「一條和弦嘅低音部份」同一吓「條和弦淨低嗰啲音符」,為雙拍子或者四拍子嘅樂曲做陪襯[4]
一段 oom-pah 伴奏
一段 oom-pah 伴奏

... 呀噉。

常用樂器

喺實際嘅演奏上,伴奏有好多方法處理:

  • 如果用嘅係好似鋼琴管風琴或者結他等可以同時奏多過一個音符樂器,主旋律同伴奏大可以由一位表演者自己搞掂嗮;例如喺彈鋼琴嗰陣好常見嘅做法係,彈鋼琴嘅人左手一路喺度彈低音伴奏、右手就彈首主旋律[5]
  • 如果用嘅係一啲冇能力同時奏多過一個音符嘅樂器(例如色士風),伴奏通常就要由一隊樂隊入面嘅唔同成員分擔,即係樂隊嘅其中一啲成員負責奏主旋律而另外嗰啲負責奏伴奏;例如爵士鼓就出嗮名成日俾人攞嚟做伴奏嘅作用。
  • 另一方面,獨唱嘅人就可以攞自己把首主旋律,一路用自己手上或者手邊嘅樂器(例如係捧住個結他或者彈住鋼琴)彈伴奏[6]

音樂嘅人實會識伴奏嘅呢啲特性,並且用伴奏嚟達到需要嘅藝術效果。

一個人喺度用結他彈伴奏。

睇埋

  1. Accompaniment. Encyclopedia Britannica.
  2. Waltz. MUSIC THEORY ACADEMY.
  3. Palmer, Willard A.; Manus, Morton; and Lethco, Amanda Vick (2005). Alfred's Basic Adult Piano Course - Theory Book 3, p.12. Alfred Music.
  4. Vallely, F. (1999). The Companion to Traditional Irish Music. New York University Press: New York, p. 301.
  5. The Ultimate Guide to Left Hand Piano Styles & Patterns. Topmusic.com.
  6. Grubb, L., & Dannenberg, R. B. (1994, January). Automated accompaniment of musical ensembles. In AAAI (pp. 94-99).

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伴奏
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