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帕特

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書

Arvo Pärt.jpg
亞福帕特(Arvo Pärt
演奏者

亞福帕特Arvo Pärt,IPA:ˈɑr̺vɔ ˈpær̺t,1935年9月11號—)係二十世紀愛沙尼亞作曲家,喺 Paide 出世。佢嘅作品包括 Kanon Pokajanen、De Profondis、Te Deum、Passio、Tabula Rasa 等,以合唱聖樂最為人所知。有人叫渠嘅風格做「神聖簡約主義」[1]

生平

「就喺愛沙尼亞,亞福嘅感覺同我地啲一模一樣[2][...] 我鍾意渠啲音樂,我鍾意渠嘅勇氣同天份。[...]渠同時代精神[3]完全脱節,但係又咁鬼受歡迎,真係發人深省。渠啲音樂滿足人心深處嘅需要,同潮流一啲關係都無。 —Steve Reich

帕特七歲開始喺 Rakvere嘅音樂學校學音樂,十四五歲時開始作曲。渠喺(愛沙尼亞首府)塔林音樂學院同Heino Eller老師學音樂時,有人話渠:「似乎 fing 吓衫袖就有啲音符跌落來」。當時好少聽到蘇聯以外嘅音樂,只有幾餅水貨帶同埋樂譜。

帕特出生時愛沙尼亞重係獨立國,但自1940年,蘇聯喺莫洛托夫同德國里賓特洛甫簽互不侵犯條約後佔領咗渠五十一年,減三年德國佔領期。

帕特嘅創作大概可分成兩段時期。早期俾簫斯達高維契、普羅歌菲夫、巴托影嚮,屬於好嚴肅嘅新古典派。後期,佢用咗荀伯克嘅十二音列技法同埋序列主義,激嬲咗當時蘇聯啲當權者,結果亦證明行唔通。同佢寫傳個 Paul Hillier 話:

「……渠完全失落到覺得音樂最無用,連寫一粒音符嘅信心同意志都無。」

咁講法可能誇張咗啲,事關帕特係呢段時期譜寫咗渠部過渡性嘅第三交響曲。無論如何,呢度明顯係渠人生嘅難關。帕特嘅反應係:浸自己入早期音樂,番去歐洲音樂嘅根源。渠研習素樂[4],格利戈里素歌,同埋複調音樂喺文藝復興點樣出現。同時渠開始探索宗教,加入俄國東正教會。

此後帕特啲音樂徹底唔同曬。渠叫呢啲做tintinnabuli -好似鐘聲咁。呢啲音樂嘅特徵係簡單嘅和聲結構、好多無裝飾嘅單音同埋基本嘅三音和弦--令人聯想鐘聲--、節奏簡單而唔變。可見早期音樂嘅影響。另外,帕特係呢段時期譜咗好多教會斯拉夫語(Slavonic)同拉丁文聖樂。多數聽眾以呢啲後期音樂認識帕特。

1980年,渠搬咗過柏林住。

Manfred Eicher 喺1984年錄咗帕特 幾篇作品,歐西地區因而開始注意。 帕特曾經話過渠的音樂猶如光通過三棱鏡:每人理解音樂都唔同,夾埋好似成譜彩虹咁多種音樂體驗。

好幾齣戲,由1962年嘅"Väike motoroller"到2004年嘅 "Promised Land" 用過帕特啲音樂。 憶布列頓被Léos Carax用喺1991年嘅Les Amants du Pont-Neuf道,而被Michael Moore's喺 Fahrenheit 9/11用來襯托2001年9月11號紐約市嘅場面。Spiegel im Spiegel被 Mike Nichols用喺2001年嘅 Wit道、2003年爬山紀錄片Touching the Void 道、同Gus van Sant 2003年嘅 Gerry道,呢道亦用咗Für Alina

帕特篇新作For Lennart,喺2006年4月2號愛沙尼亞總統Lennart Meri嘅葬禮道有奏。

出名作品

聲樂加樂團

  • Our Garden, Cantata for children's chorus and orchestra (1959/2003)
  • Credo for chorus ----樂團同鋼琴獨奏 (1968)
  • Wallfahrtslied for tenor or baritone and string orchestra (1984/2000)
  • Te Deum for chorus, string orchestra and tape (1984-5, rev 1992)
  • Berlin Mass for chorus and organ or string orchestra (1992)
  • Litany for soloists, chorus and orchestra (1994)
  • Como cierva sedienta for soprano, chorus and orchestra (1998)
  • Cantiques des degrés for chorus and orchestra (1999/2002)
  • Cecilia, vergine romana for chorus and orchestra (1999/2002)
  • In Principio for chorus and orchestra (2003)

聲樂加樂隊(或鋼琴)

  • An den Wassern zu Babel saßen wir und weinten for voices or choir and organ or ensemble (1976/1984)
  • Sarah Was Ninety Years Old for three voices, percussion and organ (1977/1990)
  • De profundis for chorus, percussion and organ (1980)
  • Passio Domini Nostri Jesu Christi secundum Joannem for soloists, vocal ensemble, choir and instrumental ensemble (1982)
  • Es sang vor langen Jahren for alto, violin and viola (1984)
  • Wallfahrtslied for tenor or baritone and string quartet (1984)
  • Stabat Mater for 3 voices and string trio (1985)
  • 悲憐經 (Miserere) for 獨唱者(soli)、合唱、樂隊(ensemble) (1989)
  • Zwei Wiegenlieder for two women’s voices and piano (2002)
  • L'Abbé Agathon 女高音、四支中提琴、四支大提琴(2004/2005)

合唱(或同埋管風琴)

  • Missa syllabica for chorus and organ (1977)
  • Summa for chorus (1977)
  • Magnificat for chorus (1989)
  • Bogoroditse Djevo for chorus (1990)
  • Dopo la Vittoria for chorus (1996)
  • 慚悔卷(??) ( Kanon Pokajanen)-- 合唱 (1997)
  • Triodion for chorus (1998)
  • Which Was the Son of... (2000)
  • Nunc Dimittis for chorus (2001)
  • Peace upon you, Jerusalem for female chorus (2002)

樂團

  • Nekrolog for orchestra op.5 (1960)
  • Symphony No.1 for orchestra op.9 (1963)
  • Perpetuum mobile for orchestra op.10 (1963)
  • Symphony No.2 for orchestra (1966)
  • Symphony No.3 for orchestra (1971)
  • Wenn Bach Bienen gezüchtet hätte ... for piano, wind quintet, string orchestra and percussion (1976)
  • Fratres for chamber ensemble (1976 and on, many versions)
  • Arbos for brass and percussion (1977/1986)
  • Cantus In Memoriam Benjamin Britten ---絃樂團同鐘(1977)
  • Psalom --絃樂團 (1985/1995/1997)
  • Festina Lente --絃樂團同豎琴 (1988)
  • Summa --絃樂團 (1991)
  • Silouans Song --絃樂團 (1991)
  • Trisagion --絃樂團 (1992)
  • Mein Weg 十四支絃樂器同敲擊 (1999)
  • Orient & Occident --絃樂團 (2000)
  • Lennartile / Für Lennart -- 絃樂團(2006)
  • La Sindone for orchestra and percussion (2006)

獨奏加樂團

  • Pro et Contra, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra (1966, for Mstislav Rostropovich)
  • Credo for chorus, orchestra, and piano solo (1968)
  • Tabula Rasa, Double Concerto for two violins, string orchestra and prepared piano (1977)
  • Fratres for violin, string orchestra and percussion (1992)
  • Concerto piccolo über B-A-C-H for trumpet, string orchestra, harpsichord and piano (1994)
  • Darf ich ... for violin, bells and string orchestra (1995/1999)
  • Lamentate for piano and orchestra (2002)

器樂

  • Two Sonatinas, Op.1, for piano (1958)
  • Für Alina for piano (1976)
  • Variationen zur Gesundung von Arinuschka for piano (1977)
  • Spiegel Im Spiegel for violin or cello and piano (1978)
  • Fratres for violin and piano (1980)
  • Summa for string quartet (1990)
  • Mozart-Adagio for violin, cello and piano (1992/1997, from Mozart's Piano Sonata in F major (K 280))
  • Passacaglia for violin and piano (2003)
  • Annum per Annum (organ)
  • Pari Intervallo (organ)

印刷源

彈出去

  1. (sacred minimalism)
  2. Even in Estonia, Arvo was getting the same feeling that we were all getting. '))
  3. (zeitgeist)
  4. en:plainchant
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帕特
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