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音樂

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書

音樂
CristoforiPiano1726LeipzigKeyboardView.jpg
一座古董鋼琴;鋼琴係古典樂最重要嘅樂器之一,喺廿一世紀初無人不曉咁滯。
方法
種類曲種
起源文化各式各樣
起源喺舊石器時代

音樂粵拼jam1 ngok6英文music)係一種有組織性嘅聲,涉及作曲嘅人喺時間當中編作[1]-一首音樂會通過運用音高和音節奏旋律音色等嘅元素嚟安排一段段嘅聲,務求令聽嘅人有賞心悅耳嘅感受。音樂理論(music theory)上嘅研究會對呢啲唔同嘅音樂元素作出分析,嘗試了解唔同嘅音樂元素組合會點樣影響一首音樂「有幾好聽」[2]

對於人類嚟講,音樂不嬲都係文化嘅重要一環:音樂可以係一門藝術,會由美學嘅角度嚟思考一段聲點樣先至算係「有美感」,而且好多人都會視聽音樂同演奏音樂做一種娛樂,由音樂當中得到樂趣[2];除此之外,音樂有陣時仲可以有藝術以外嘅文化意義,例如著名芭蕾舞劇胡桃夾子》當中嘅樂曲就俾好多人同聖誕節聯想埋一齊,所以喺北美洲等地,好多人一到聖誕就會攞《胡桃夾子》當中嘅樂曲嚟周圍播,營造聖誕氣氛[3]。又有啲音樂會俾人攞嚟做重要儀式嘅一部份。

定義問題

樂章 1 - Adagio sostenuto 樂章 2 - Allegretto 樂章 3 - Presto agitato 貝多芬名曲《月光奏鳴曲》嗰三段樂章;呢首曲喺廿一世紀初係世上最家傳互曉嘅鋼琴樂曲之一[4]。 播呢啲檔案有問題?睇吓媒體幫手
《糖梅仙子之舞》 柴可夫斯基芭蕾舞劇胡桃夾子》其中一首曲;喺北美等地,呢首曲一到聖誕就會俾人攞嚟周圍播[3]。 播呢個檔案有問題?睇吓媒體幫手
內文:樂理音樂嘅定義

樂理上,啲人好睇重一條定義上嘅問題[5]

何謂音樂?

呢條問題就噉睇好似好簡單,但就算到咗廿一世紀初,音樂嘅定義音樂哲學(philosophy of music)上都仲係一條廣受爭議嘅問題。例如喺廿世紀曾經有人主張音樂可以定義做有組織性嘅聲(organized sounds),但講嘢產生嘅聲都係一種有組織性嘅聲(語言會有文法,指定邊啲句子可以接受邊啲句子唔可以)-即係話個定義包埋一啲直覺上認為應該唔屬於音樂嘅嘢,所以唔可以攞嚟做音樂嘅定義[6]。又有啲定義嘗試由美感嘅角度出發,將音樂定義做「有組織性得嚟又有美感嘅聲」,但又有個問題係美感呢家嘢相當主觀,而一般認為定義最好應該係要客觀[7]

分類

睇埋:古典樂同埋曲種

音樂可以按好多準則分類:

  • 首先音樂有得按「有冇人聲」分做器樂,當中器樂係指完全冇人聲、齋靠樂器嚟創造嘅音樂,而歌係指有人聲跟住嘅音樂[8]
  • 另一方面,音樂又可以按音高節奏等嘅音樂元素特性嚟分做唔同嘅曲種,例如華爾滋(Waltz)就出嗮名興用三拍子(一種節奏特性)而且啲旋律令人有「飄浮無重」嘅感覺[9]。唔同風格或者類型嘅音樂可能會強調、唔強調或者省略其中一啲元素。
  • 舞曲係指專門作嚟俾人跟住跳舞嘅音樂,例子可以睇華爾滋芭蕾舞音樂
  • 粵樂出嗮名「音色清脆明亮,節奏活潑歡樂」。
  • 夜曲泛指題材上同夜晚有關嘅樂曲。

相關能力

睇埋

  1. Levonsin, (1990). Music, Art, and Metaphysics, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. pp. 267-78.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Tagg, P. (1982). Analysing popular music: theory, method and practice. Popular music, 2, 37-67.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Fisher, J. (2003). Nutcracker Nation: How an Old World Ballet Became a Christmas Tradition in the New World, New Haven: Yale University Press.
  4. 14 Famous Classical Piano Pieces.
  5. Gracyk, T. & A. Kania (eds.), 2011, The Routledge Companion to Philosophy and Music, New York: Routledge. pp. 1-13. "Definition".
  6. Scruton, R. (1999). The Aesthetics of Music. Oxford University Press.
  7. Levonsin, (1990). Music, Art, and Metaphysics, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. pp. 267-78.
  8. Vennard, William (1967). Singing: the mechanism and the technic. New York: Carl Fischer Music.
  9. Nettl, P. (1929). Notes on the History of the Dance. The Musical Quarterly, 15(4), 583-589.

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