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日常生活活動(英語:Activities of daily living縮寫ADL)是醫療照護的用語,指人们的日常自我护理活动。一般用于年長者、失能者的照顧上。


通常以是否能表現日常生活活動,來測量個人的功能狀態[3]。此測量常用於年長者的評估、精神病患、慢性病患者及其他,以評估何種健康照顧可以符合個人所需。 評估工具有數種,例如Katz ADL scale[4]和Lawton IADL scale[5]



  • 個人衛生
  • 穿脫衣物
  • 進食
  • 可在床和椅子之間移動身軀
  • 自主控制大小便
  • 四處移動 (相對於長期臥床而言)


工具性日常生活活動(Instrumental activities of daily living,簡稱IADLs) 不是基本功能所必需,但可使個體在社區中獨立生活︰[7]

  • 進行輕度家務
  • 準備餐點
  • 服藥
  • 購買雜貨或衣物
  • 使用電話
  • 管理金錢
  • 使用科技產品 (年長世代可能因在人生中沒有接觸某些科技產品,因此不熟悉相關技術。)


  • 照顧他人 (包含選擇及監督照護者)
  • 照顧寵物
  • 撫養孩童
  • 使用通訊設備
  • 社區移動性
  • 財務管理
  • 健康維持管理
  • 準備餐點及收拾
  • 安全守則和處理緊急情況
  • 購物



  1. ^ Medical Dictionary. [2010-01-19]. (原始内容存档于2014-02-25). 
  2. ^ National Center for Health Statistics. [2010-01-19]. (原始内容存档于2021-01-26). 
  3. ^ "Activities of Daily Living Evaluation." Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health. ed. Kristine Krapp. Gale Group, Inc., 2002. 2006.Enotes Nursing Encyclopedia页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆)Accessed on: 11 Oct, 2007
  4. ^ Katz ADL scale
  5. ^ Lawton IADL scale
  6. ^ McDowell, I., and Newell, C. (1996). Measuring Health: A Guide to Rating Scales and Questionnaires, 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press
  7. ^ Bookman, A., Harrington, M., Pass, L., & Reisner, E. (2007). Family Caregiver Handbook. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  8. ^ "Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and process." American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 56, 609-637
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