Early packet switching network (1969–1990), one of the first to implement TCP/IP / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was the first wide-area packet-switched network with distributed control and one of the first networks to implement the TCP/IP protocol suite. Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet. The ARPANET was established by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the United States Department of Defense.[1]

Quick facts: ARPANET, Type, Location, Protocols, Operator...
ARPANET logical map, March 1977
LocationUnited States, United Kingdom, Norway
ProtocolsLayers 1-3: 1822 protocol (IMP-host), internal/undocumented (IMP-IMP)
Layers 4+: NCP, later TCP/IP
OperatorFrom 1975, Defense Communications Agency
Established1969; 54 years ago (1969)
FundingFrom 1966, Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
ARPANET access points in the 1970s

Building on the ideas of J. C. R. Licklider, Bob Taylor initiated the ARPANET project in 1966 to enable resource sharing between remote computers.[2] Taylor appointed Larry Roberts as program manager. Roberts made the key decisions about the network design.[3] He incorporated Donald Davies' concepts and designs for packet switching,[4][5] and sought input from Paul Baran.[6] ARPA awarded the contract to build the network to Bolt Beranek & Newman who developed the first protocol for the network.[7] Roberts engaged Leonard Kleinrock at UCLA to develop mathematical methods for analyzing the packet network technology.[6]

The first computers were connected in 1969 and the Network Control Protocol was implemented in 1970.[8][9] The network was declared operational in 1971. Further software development enabled remote login, file transfer and email.[10] The network expanded rapidly and operational control passed to the Defense Communications Agency in 1975.

Internetworking research in the early 1970s led by Bob Kahn at DARPA and Vint Cerf at Stanford University and later DARPA formulated the Transmission Control Program,[11] which incorporated concepts from the French CYCLADES project. As this work progressed, a protocol was developed by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. Version 4 of TCP/IP was installed in the ARPANET for production use in January 1983 after the Department of Defense made it standard for all military computer networking.[12][13]

Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the Computer Science Network (CSNET). In the early 1980s, the NSF funded the establishment of national supercomputing centers at several universities and provided network access and network interconnectivity with the NSFNET project in 1986. The ARPANET was formally decommissioned in 1990, after partnerships with the telecommunication and computer industry had assured private sector expansion and future commercialization of an expanded worldwide network, known as the Internet.[14]