Algorithm

Sequence of operations for a task / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ ) is a finite sequence of rigorous instructions, typically used to solve a class of specific problems or to perform a computation.[1] Algorithms are used as specifications for performing calculations and data processing. More advanced algorithms can use conditionals to divert the code execution through various routes (referred to as automated decision-making) and deduce valid inferences (referred to as automated reasoning), achieving automation eventually. Using human characteristics as descriptors of machines in metaphorical ways was already practiced by Alan Turing with terms such as "memory", "search" and "stimulus".[2]

In a loop, subtract the larger number against the smaller number. Halt the loop when the subtraction will make a number negative. Assess two numbers whether one of them equal to zero or not. If yes, take the other number as the greatest common divisor. If no, put the two number in the subtraction loop again.
Flowchart of using successive subtractions to find the greatest common divisor of number r and s

In contrast, a heuristic is an approach to problem solving that may not be fully specified or may not guarantee correct or optimal results, especially in problem domains where there is no well-defined correct or optimal result.[3] For example, social media recommender systems rely on heuristics in such a way that, although widely characterized as "algorithms" in 21st century popular media, cannot deliver correct results due to the nature of the problem.

As an effective method, an algorithm can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time[4] and in a well-defined formal language[5] for calculating a function.[6] Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty),[7] the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite[8] number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output"[9] and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input.[10]

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