Angolan War of Independence

1961–1974 conflict for independence of colonial Angola from Portugal / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Angolan War of Independence (Portuguese: Guerra de Independência de Angola; 1961–1974), called in Angola the Luta Armada de Libertação Nacional ("Armed Struggle of National Liberation"),[33][34] began as an uprising against forced cultivation of cotton, and it became a multi-faction struggle for the control of Portugal's overseas province of Angola among three nationalist movements and a separatist movement.[35] The war ended when a leftist military coup in Lisbon in April 1974 overthrew Portugal's Estado Novo dictatorship, and the new regime immediately stopped all military action in the African colonies, declaring its intention to grant them independence without delay.

Quick facts: Angolan War of Independence, Date, Location, ...
Angolan War of Independence
Part of the Portuguese Colonial War, the Decolonization of Africa and the Cold War
Portuguese troops on patrol in Angola
Date4 February 1961 – 25 April 1974
(13 years, 2 months and 3 weeks)

Angolan victory[1][2]

Independence of Angola

Flag_of_MPLA.svg MPLA

Diplomatic support:

Bandeira_da_FNLA.svg FNLA
Flag_of_UNITA.svg UNITA

Flag_of_Cabinda_%28FLEC_propose%29.svg FLEC

Flag_of_Portugal.svg Portugal

Material support:
Commanders and leaders
Flag_of_MPLA.svg Agostinho Neto
Flag_of_MPLA.svg Lúcio Lara
Bandeira_da_FNLA.svg Holden Roberto
Flag_of_UNITA.svg Jonas Savimbi
Estado Novo (Portugal) António de Oliveira Salazar
Estado Novo (Portugal) Francisco da Costa Gomes
Estado Novo (Portugal) Marcello Caetano
32,000[30] 65,000
Casualties and losses
~10,000 killed[31] 2,991 killed[32]
4,684 with permanent deficiency (physical and/or psychological)
Map of the present provinces of Angola, corresponding almost exactly to the Portuguese-era districts.

The conflict is usually approached as a branch or a theater of the wider Portuguese Overseas War, which also included the independence wars of Guinea-Bissau and of Mozambique.

It was a guerrilla war in which the Portuguese army and security forces waged a counter-insurgency campaign against armed groups mostly dispersed across sparsely populated areas of the vast Angolan countryside.[36] Many atrocities were committed by all forces involved in the conflict.

In Angola, after the Portuguese withdrew, an armed conflict broke out among the nationalist movements. This war formally came to an end in January 1975 when the Portuguese government, the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), and the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) signed the Alvor Agreement. Informally, this civil war resumed by May 1975, including street fighting in Luanda and the surrounding countryside.