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Aperture

Hole or opening through which light travels / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels. More specifically, the aperture and focal length of an optical system determine the cone angle of a bundle of rays that come to a focus in the image plane.

Different apertures of a lens
A camera aperture
Definitions of Aperture in the 1707 Glossographia Anglicana Nova[1]
Aperture icon

An optical system typically has many openings or structures that limit the ray bundles (ray bundles are also known as pencils of light). These structures may be the edge of a lens or mirror, or a ring or other fixture that holds an optical element in place, or may be a special element such as a diaphragm placed in the optical path to limit the light admitted by the system. In general, these structures are called stops,[2] and the aperture stop is the stop that primarily determines the ray cone angle and brightness at the image point.

In some contexts, especially in photography and astronomy, aperture refers to the diameter of the aperture stop rather than the physical stop or the opening itself. For example, in a telescope, the aperture stop is typically the edges of the objective lens or mirror (or of the mount that holds it). One then speaks of a telescope as having, for example, a 100-centimeter aperture. The aperture stop is not necessarily the smallest stop in the system. Magnification and demagnification by lenses and other elements can cause a relatively large stop to be the aperture stop for the system. In astrophotography, the aperture may be given as a linear measure (for example in inches or mm) or as the dimensionless ratio between that measure and the focal length. In other photography, it is usually given as a ratio.

Sometimes stops and diaphragms are called apertures, even when they are not the aperture stop of the system.

The word aperture is also used in other contexts to indicate a system which blocks off light outside a certain region. In astronomy, for example, a photometric aperture around a star usually corresponds to a circular window around the image of a star within which the light intensity is assumed.[3] The word "aperture" is also used as a small hole, similar to a peek-hole. For example, in military terms, a bunker's aperture means a small peeking hole made artificially or by natural means. A bunker's aperture can be used for preserving the body from enemy fire while achieving a clear line of sight. (Infantry Combat/The Rifle Platoon/John F. Antal p.91)